The Electromagnetic Universe : A New Theory

Aug 31, 2020
Gestalt Aether Theory, is both a Grand Unified Theory and the first Theory of Everything. What is the difference between a grand Unified Theory and a Theory of Everything? A grand Unified theory is one that explains all phenomena under one head, at present any theory that can unify electromagnetism and gravity under one heading would be termed a Grand Unified Theory, a Theory of Everything can have disparate explanations for different phenomena but explains them all.

What is Gestalt Aether Theory and how can it be considered to be a Theory of Everything? Gestalt Aether Theory represents a new paradigm in the history of physics. By looking at previously collected data in a radically new way, Gestalt Aether Theory both rationalises and explains all of the different phenomena in physics under a single heading. Therefore, the propagation of light, an explanation of gravity, an explanation of magnetism, electricity and super conductivity is achieved using a single paradigm. Physical phenomena can be calculated using prevailing mathematical formula as a first approximation, making it a versatile, accurate and verifiable theory.

Nothing in science is certain, any theories that have been proposed and formulated have been founded on observation and experiment and if the observations and experiments explain the phenomenon accurately a new theory is created. However, sometimes it becomes necessary, as new facts come to light, to alter or discard old theories in favour of new ones. Yet this process is not always infallible and not always followed; sometimes a theory gets so mired down in usage that even though it seems to go against circumstantial evidence to the contrary, it is still taken to be the more acceptable solution. There are many instances of this kind in present day physics where better, proven alternatives have been passed over in favour of established customs and practises. In this paper several such instances are examined: they include electric and magnetic fields, the propagation of light, the propagation of gravity, the propagation of electricity, the theory of wave-particle duality and several other such phenomena that should if reason is followed be abandoned or re-examined due to new hard evidence or even circumstantial evidence pointing to other explanations than existing ones.

Electric and Magnetic Fields:

Consider the following; a moving electric field creates a magnetic field, and a moving magnetic field creates an electric field. Not only are the two types of fields connected, but one type of field can create the other. Maxwell had created a single, unified description of electricity and magnetism. He had united two different forces into a single unified force, which we now call electromagnetism. Einstein by introducing the Lorentz transformations "mixed-up" the two fields, transforming one into the other, and so the notion of whether what is observed is an electric field or a magnetic field is observer dependent. Yet aren’t all of these conclusions circling around a more basic observation without actually stating it. What if independent electric and magnetic fields do not exist? What if the manifestation of both the electric field and the magnetic field were two aspects of the same phenomena? Surely this seems to be a more logical conclusion than to suppose that two such intimately connected phenomena are independent entities? Just to see where this goes what happens if we consider the possibility of some kind of mechanical medium or field existing that is responsible for both electric and magnetic effects. If so what would this new manifestation or medium look like, how could it be described?

In order to understand the above question it would be necessary to return to the concept of a medium or an aether. In recent times the whole concept of a medium through which light (electro-magnetic radiation) can propagate has fallen out of favour, so much so that even to mention the possibility of the existence of such a substance invokes severe censure. At the risk of invoking such censure and continuing with the surmise of the existence of a type of field that could be thought of as a medium, the possible nature of such a medium is examined. What would such an electromagnetic field look like? Suppose, that there existed an electromagnetic field consisting of infinitesimal discrete independent individual electromagnetic di-poles that permeated every part of the Universe? How would it affect things? To begin with such a field would form a preferred frame of reference since it would provide co-ordinates for every part of the Universe and also be the frame of reference in which the speed of light was a constant, since it would be analogous to a wave travelling through a medium. This means that Einstein’s theory of a space time continuum would no longer hold good. Such a medium would also provide a limiting speed for the speed of light (electromagnetic radiation) and be the limiting speed of the Universe. It would be responsible for causality and would also, since it can be considered to be pure energy, be responsible for manifesting mass energy equivalence. Thus instead of having numerous fields to explain every type of force a single tangible (real) field would serve to explain all of the forces. According to conservative estimates, quantum mechanics recognises more than 400 different types of fields, one for each particle and anti-particle. According to some branches of quantum mechanics there exist not just 400 different particles but literally thousands of particles together with their associated fields. Here is what Dr. Michio Kaku a particle physicist has to say:

There are 60 sub-atomic particles they have discovered that can explain the thousands of other sub-atomic particles, and the model is too ugly. This is my analogy: it's like Scotch tape and taping a giraffe to a mule to a whale to a tiger and saying this is the theory of particles....... We have so many particles that Oppenheimer once said you could give a Nobel Prize to the physicist that did not discover a particle that year. We were drowning in sub-atomic particles.... (Michio Kaku)

So what does this mean? Does one set of rules exist for mainstream physics where any proposal, claiming to be backed by experimental result is supported, while anyone outside the magic circle is not allowed to raise any conjectures whatsoever?

An examination of the circumstantial evidence in favour of the existence of such a field of electromagnetic particles that occupy every space in the Universe will be briefly attempted. Firstly, it has been established that this field exists everywhere, for instance the Voyager space craft are able to make and receive radio transmissions from 20,000,000,000 km away. We can also receive light from a distance 13.5 billion light years away, this is fairly drastic evidence that the whole of the Universe is indeed permeated by some field through which light can propagate. The theory that these are two different and separate fields namely the electric field and the magnetic field, is once again brought into question. If two independent fields existed, what force is responsible for always under all circumstances keeping them together, as would be need to be done if light was to travel for distances of 13.5 billion light years. Further when Maxwell determined that light travelled at a fixed speed v in the Aether, he used the equation:
lightspeedeq copy.jpg

Here µ stands for the permeability of free space and ε stands for the permittivity of free space. Both of the properties had to be determined through experiment. Permeability is the ability of a substance to undergo polarisation while permittivity represents the resistance of a substance to the passage of an electric current. This is another piece of circumstantial evidence pointing to the existence of a field, since a vacuum by its very definition is supposedly empty or void and cannot in theory undergo polarisation.

The question that will be examined next concerns how such a medium or aether, consisting of discrete electromagnetic di-pole points that permeate the entire Universe could have come into existence.

The Gestalt Aether Theory model of the photon is as follows:

J.J. Thomson discovered the electron in 1897, this was followed just three years later in 1900 by Max Planck’s discovery that energy was delivered not in a smooth continuous form as had hitherto been believed but as tiny discrete individual packets of energy which he termed quanta. This discovery of the discrete particulate nature of energy threw the whole of the world of physics into chaos. Such a thing was unheard of. In 1905 Einstein explained how quantisation of energy worked through the photoelectric effect.

What is interesting is the rapidity with which events followed each other, surely given the extreme rapidity with which new ideas were being assimilated there remained room for error? Nothing can be sacrosanct on the grounds that it has been proposed. It had been known since the mid eighteenth century when Coulomb performed his experiments with static electricity that positive and negative charge existed in nature. After J.J. Thomson’s discovery of the electron it became known that the electron was the charged particle responsible for observed electrical effects and that when subjected to a potential difference that it radiated energy. In 1905 Einstein demonstrated that the energy packets or quanta that had been discovered by Max Planck must each contain a fixed frequency, wave-length and energy and that these energy packets or photons had their origin in electrons. So far everything seemed fairly logical and easy to explain. The difficulties began when the two dissimilar characteristics of light, the wave characteristic and the particle characteristic had to be rationalised and explained as a single phenomenon. Existing theories formulated by quantum mechanics were never able to adequately come to grips with this problem in a way that would explain these two dissimilar aspects of light. This inability on the part of physics to explain the nature of light can be considered to be the greatest failure of modern day physics. Therefore when formulating a new theory of physics this inability of physics to explain even the simplest properties of light namely its mode of propagation from point A to point B was deemed the most fitting place to start when formulating a new theory.

In formulating the Gestalt Aether Theory it was decided to move away from the statistical methods favoured by quantum mechanics to explain natural phenomena with its heavy dependence on arcane mathematical formula dealing in imaginary numbers and multiple dimensions and to follow the path of logical arguments; namely observation, hypotheses, experiment and theory, used prior to the development of quantum mechanics. This followed the path of Crick and Watson in formulating a new physical model for the structure of DNA that depended on observation, evaluation and detection of data rather than on a purely theoretical approach.

First the observed properties of the photon came under intense observation and study. The properties of the photon were tabulated and examined for how they could fit a physical or mechanical model that would account for all of the observed properties of the photon.

The observed properties of the photon were noted to be as follows:-

  • The photon has no mass.
  • The photon is never at rest, from the moment it is emitted it is in movement.
  • The photon always travels at a constant speed namely 299,792 km/s, the speed of light in a vacuum.
  • The photon is electrically neutral.
  • The photon follows the inverse square law of dispersion and hence travels like a wave in a medium.
  • The photon maintains its energy or identity intact over huge distances. The energy of an individual photon never changes and never dissipates, this gives it the quality of a particle.
  • The photon exists as trillions of different frequencies, wave-lengths and energies.
  • Radio waves also possess the same properties of the photon although they are huge in wave-length, a 60Hz radio-wave has a wavelength of 5,000,000 m.
  • All photons have their genesis in electrons.
  • A photon has the characteristics of both a wave and a particle.
These were the properties of the photon that had to be considered when devising a new structural model. The reasoning behind the creation of this photon model were as follows:

Since the electron is a unit of electrical energy, what could be more natural than that it regulates its energy by emitting or absorbing pulses of electrical energy? These pulses of energy might take the form of bands of energy that become electrically polarised. This model of the photon has to be considered very, very carefully. Not only is the fact that the tiny electron with a classical radius of 10^−13cm has to produce an incredible range of photons, trillions and trillions of possible energies, frequencies and wavelengths under consideration but also the fact that quantum mechanics treats each of these trillions and trillions of frequencies, wavelengths and energies as individual wave-particles. Is this conjecture that each individual photon has an independent existence tenable? If it is true that every photon has an independent existence then the question that must be asked is, how is it possible? What is the mechanism by which these photons are produced in such an astonishing array of frequencies, wavelengths and energies? Where are these photons stored? How are they accessed? How do they know when they will be needed? These are the types of questions that quantum mechanics either cannot answer or deems to be below consideration. Thought should now be given as to which theory is more acceptable. The quantum mechanics theory, which is the accepted mainstream theory of physics today and which chooses to completely ignore the subject of where, when, why and how electrons emit photons or the new theory suggested by Gestalt Aether Theory that photons of different energies and wavelengths are formed as the result of electrons mediating their energy by emitting pulses of energy that form into a stable configuration that we know of as photons.

Elaborating on the Gestalt Aether Theory on the formation of photons: The electron is a charged particle; could it be possible that it mediates its energy by emitting or absorbing pulses of electric energy? On giving the matter thought it seems that the notion that the electron emits pulses of electrical energy is a distinct possibility because it puts the electron in charge of what energies to absorb or emit. Using such a stratagem, it is possible for the electron to emit extremely accurately metred amounts of energy. For instance using this model of energy transfer it would be possible for an electron to accurately determine between photon energies differing by even fractions of an electron volt. Thus by adopting this method of energy transfer and bestowing on the electron a method of accurately mediating its energy through the emission of electrical pulses which take on the form of a stable configurations has the result of allowing an electron to easily and without undue effort to emit or absorb trillions and trillions of photon combinations, each with its own unique frequency, wavelength and energy. Apart from the ability of the electron to produce all of these trillions upon trillions of photon frequencies, wavelengths and energies is also the advantage that such photons made up of electrical pulses can be formed and emitted or absorbed by the electron extremely fast, in time intervals on the order of <10-15s . Photons are produced by the electron on demand and they are produced in prodigious numbers. To understand how the electron emits bursts or pulses of electrical energy to construct a photon see the image below:

photonemission1 (2) copy.jpg

A natural result of the bands of electrical energy emitted by the electron is that polarization will take place with the first bursts of emitted electrical energy being stronger than later ones. This order of emission, strong pulses first followed by weaker pulses, results in polarisation and the configuration of a di-pole solenoid formation that is electrically neutral. Apart from this structure the fact that the bands of energy emitted by the electron are separated by a di-electric means that these bands of energy can act as a capacitor and preserve their energy almost indefinitely. Look at the picture below to get an idea of how polarisation and the capacitor like formation may look like in a photon.:
photonemission (2) copy.jpg

Thus there now emerges a model of the photon that possesses a structure that

  1. Has no mass.
  2. Is electrically neutral.
  3. Can preserve its energy (identity) almost indefinitely
  4. Always travels at c.
  5. Is both wave and particle simultaneously.
  6. Is easily emitted and absorbed by electrons.
  7. Follows the inverse square law of dispersion.
  8. Consists of all electromagnetic radiation from radio-waves with a wavelength of 5000 Km to photons with a wavelength of a few nanometres.
In other words here is a model of the photon that fulfils all of the properties that a photon is supposed to possess. Even more important is the fact that this is a model of the photon that follows extremely closely Max Planck’s discovery of energy quanta or the identification of electromagnetic radiation as being composed of discrete individual packets of energy. This is all very well but how does this photon propagate? As referred to earlier in this paper, Gestalt Aether Theory believes that the whole of the Universe is permeated by a ‘virtual photon’ aether. What are these ‘virtual photons’. They are exactly the same as the photons whose structure is discussed above, except that they possess such low energies on the order of 10^−40 J that they for all purposes don’t exist, they are undetectable. Thus they are absolutely permeable to matter and vice-versa, no atom can have any use for photons of such low energy, as a result the photons of the virtual photon aether can pass through matter as if it didn’t exist, the virtual photon aether can pass through a planet like Saturn or the sun as if it to all purposes did not exist! Thus according to Gestalt Aether Theory, the Universe is filled with these virtual photons which to all purposes are almost stationary electromagnetic di-poles. Because of this electromagnetic property of the virtual photon aether, when a real photon is emitted by an electron, the photons of the virtual photon aether line up in the direction of the propagation of the real photon forming a line whose ends rest on the shoulders of infinity and the energy of the real photon travels along this line of aligned virtual photons. This is much the same as when a line of metal filings aligns with a magnet.

It is important to note that it is the energy of the real photon that travels along the line of virtual photons and not the photon itself. As the real photon travels forward it disperses energy laterally also, so that dispersion takes place according to the inverse square law. Here is what both a real photon and a virtual photon might look like:

photon copy2.jpg

If you have been following this elucidation so far it becomes clear that the photon is basically a wave, it doesn’t have a physical structure in the sense of a real particle, yet the fact that it contains energy means that it has some of the properties of a particle. This is similar to the ultra-sonic sound waves that are used in lithotripsy to shatter kidney stones. These ultrasonic sound waves are waves that possess some of the properties of a particle. This is the reason that the photon can and does travel at the speed of light; it is a natural corollary to travelling in a medium. This brings us back to the question that was left unanswered earlier on of how photons came to permeate the entire Universe forming the medium through which light could propagate that we had formerly called the aether.

The Aether Or Medium

To gain some idea of how virtual photons came to permeate the entire Universe, it is first necessary to examine in detail another of the out dated concepts of quantum mechanics. This is the concept of the frequency of a photon. According to quantum mechanics:

Photons don’t have a frequency. Frequency is a wave property and is a property that applies only when you look at light as a wave. A photon has an energy, which is related to, but different from, frequency. So we sometimes use the term ‘the frequency of a photon’ but really as a short hand for “the frequency of the wave that will manifest later as a photon”.

Another way of stating this is by this means that if you know the energy of the photon it is possible to determine its frequency by dividing the photon energy by h planck’s constant. Whatever the answer might be it is fairly obvious that the quantum mechanics concept of what the frequency of a single photon might be is shrouded in obscurity; due to the wave-particle duality there can be no definite answer to the question.

This presents a problem when looked at from a purely mechanical point of view. The problem arises as follows, if one looks at a modern day smart phone one is aware that it is processing data at the rate of several gigabits per second. Consider what the term processing denotes, it means taking input data, evaluating it and outputting the result. The electron is miniscule in size and the distances over which it has to oscillate are even smaller. It is then only natural that the electron should oscillate at frequencies of several hundreds of terahertz and emit photons at that rate. In fact not to do so would be odd. Gestalt Aether Theory, therefore, takes the concept of photon frequency away from the fuzzy abstract notions of quantum mechanics where it is an abstract vague property of the photon and puts it on a sound practical basis. Therefore when we talk of an electron emitting photons with a frequency of 600 THz it means exactly that. The electron is emitting photons at the prodigious rate of 600,000,000,000,000 photons per second. In what direction are these photons emitted? These photons are emitted in a single direction as a line of photons of the same frequency, wavelength and energy. Why? If one looks at the physics behind the emission of a photon, it is apparent that the electron absorbs energy and mediates its energy by emitting that energy in the form of a photon, the process involves the force of recoil. To cope with these forces of recoil the electron rebounds against the nucleus absorbs more energy and again emits this energy at the exact same position as before, hence photons are emitted as a line of photons in a specific direction. Proof that this is indeed the case can be seen in the working of any atomic clock. Frequency is directly related to the rate of emission of photons by the electron or to put it another way by the electron’s rate of oscillation. There exists ample evidence that this theory of how photon frequency is linked to rate of emission or oscillation of the electron is correct in the working of atomic clocks.

We are now in a position to understand the concept of a Universe completely submerged or steeped in a sea of virtual photons. Having established that photons are emitted and absorbed at phenomenal rates, it is time to return to the first moments of the Big Bang that is thought to have occurred out of a singularity more than 13.7 billion years ago! Although it is generally accepted that the Big Bang was not a bang in the accepted sense of an explosion but that it involved a rapid inflation or expansion, opinions is almost unanimous that light must have been present also. It is almost a corollary that if matter was present light (or rather photons) must have been present also, although light might not at this early stage of the Universe have been able to propagate. The question is what happened to all that light, look at the ratio; for every atom of matter, photons were being emitted at the rate of hundreds of Terahertz per second (10¹⁴) per second. What happened to those photons? Emitted not over seconds but hundreds of thousands, even millions of years? They could not have escaped over the borders of the Universe because by definition nothing exists outside the Universe, so they must have been contained in some way within the Universe. Don’t confuse this with CMBR (Cosmic microwave background radiation) for one thing Gestalt Aether Theory does not hold that optical photons can be red shifted, no matter what the circumstances, to the extent that they transform into microwaves. (Later this will be explained in detail).

What is the CMBR then? It is extremely likely that it is a heat signature left over from the Big Bang involving mostly photons in the plus 1200 nm wavelength range. As this heat was absorbed and radiated and absorbed over and over again it took on the character of the smooth or even black body radiation signal that we see today. If this is indeed the case what happened to the light that was created at that time along with the heat? It is presumed that if light could not escape over the borders of the Universe the scenario of a linked net- work of photons that permeate the whole of the Universe is a very plausible theory. If one examines the model for the structure of the photon proposed earlier, it is possible to see that these photons can link together not only vertically end to end but also laterally. When photons are linked in this manner their energy is shared. The theory is that as the Universe continued to expand the vast numbers of photons present formed a linked network. As time passed and the Universe continued to expand the network of linked photons expanded with the Universe filling every part of it. As the expansion of the Universe proceeded, the individual energy of the photons was shared out among the network of linked photons, till eventually they reached such a low state of energy (about 10-⁴⁰J) that they for all practical purposes ceased to exist! Because of this extremely low energy it was possible for this linked network of photons that permeated the entire Universe, to exist for practically ever, with life-times similar to that of the proton or the electron. This process can be attributed to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle as it relates to time and energy:

Δe Δt > h

The HUP states that if an event happens in an extremely short period of time < 10^-15 s or possesses very small energies, it can be ignored by the laws of energy conservation which rule all processes at the macro level.

These ‘virtual photons’ of the virtual photon aether were almost stationary dipole particles with which, because of their extremely low energy, no matter would or could interact, thus they could travel through matter as if it did not exist. Eventually when all of the Universe was full of this linked network of photons, light began to propagate in the way that is familiar to us today. When an electron within an atom emits a real photon the photons of the virtual photon aether, line up forming a line whose ends rest on the shoulders of infinity and the energy of the real photon travels along this line of linked photons.

This explanation of how an aether like medium formed consisting of extremely low energy photons that permeated every part of the Universe and yet was absolutely permeable to all forms of matter and would allow massive objects such as the planets the sun, the moon and the stars to pass through it without the slightest opposition, explains everything that was ever known about light. The aether does not interact with matter because no atom could possibly need or utilise such low energies, thus virtual photons of the aether pass through all atoms as if they did not exist. The existence of such an aether also explains in easily understandable terms, how light can propagate according to the inverse square law and still enable individual photons to maintain the same energies that they possessed at the time they were created. This Aether model explains how and why the speed of light is a constant and invariant and unaffected by the motion of either the source or the observer or of both. This is a perfectly modelled system for light and all of its properties; it makes sense as the quantum mechanics model for light and electromagnetic radiation does not.

The Gestalt Aether Theory On The Propagation And Dispersion Of Light:

The term ‘light’ is deliberately used in the sub-title instead of ‘electromagnetic radiation’ since according to Gestalt Aether Theory there is a small but significant difference in the manner of production and propagation of high energy, high frequency photons like visible light and x-rays and gamma rays and relatively low frequency, long wavelength, low energy radio-waves.

In order to introduce a new theory or concept it is first necessary to review how the old system worked. Here is how the propagation of light is explained in terms of quantum mechanics:

“There’s no way to chart the photon’s trajectory from the source to the detector. The photon is not real in the sense that a plane flying from San Francisco to New York is real. Werner Heisenberg, among others, interpreted the mathematics to mean that reality doesn’t exist until observed. “The idea of an objective real world whose smallest parts exist objectively in the same sense as stones or trees exist, independently of whether or not we observe them ... is impossible,” he wrote. (Scientific American , “What does Quantum Theory actually Tell us about Reality?” Anil Anthaswamy. Sep3 , 2018)

Reading the above it is immediately possible to realise that quantum mechanics ( at least as it has to do with wave-particle duality) is a pretty mixed up theory, which apart from complicated maths, based almost entirely on imaginary numbers (multiple dimensions), does not offer much of an explanation for anything. Quantum theory has never been adequately able to explain the dispersion of light according to the inverse square law. This is a huge lacuna considering that 400 years have passed since Newton and Huygens and 150 years since Maxwell. We should, by this time, have had a beautiful theory on how light propagates, we don’t. Gestalt Aether Theory offers one such beautiful and unified theory.

But what is the actual mechanism by which light propagates in Gestalt Aether Theory? Light propagates as follows. The ‘virtual photons’ of the aether which incidentally resemble a field of to all purposes stationary electric di-poles, are oriented at random until a real photon is emitted by an electron, when this happens the ‘virtual photons of the Aether, line up in the direction of propagation of the real photon forming themselves into a line whose ends rest on the shoulders of infinity. The energy of the real photon then travels along this line of virtual photons. However, and this is of significance, as the energy of the line of real photons travels along the line of aligned ‘virtual photons’ it is dispersed not only forward but also laterally so that the energy from the line of real photons spreads out in a cone shape from its point of origin. All of the area covered by this shape is filled with the energy of the original line of photons being emitted at the source. In order to understand how this dispersion takes place it is necessary to understand the concept of promotion wherein ‘virtual photons’ adjacent and in contact with the energy of the line of real photons are promoted to the status of real photons through a transfer of energy. In order to understand how this happens, look at the lead photon, it has been emitted at the head of line of connected photons and it is moving away (its energy) is moving away at the speed of light. Each photon in this line of connected photons possess identical energies. When a photon in this line of connected photons comes into contact with the line of virtual photons aligned in its direction of propagation it results in an energy transfer not only forward but laterally also. This means that a virtual photon in contact moving beside the real photon will acquire all of the energy from the real photon and the energy of the real photon will be replenished from the line of photons behind it. This is why light, as it propagates, follows the inverse square law of dispersion. In incoherent light every receptive electron in the receptive substance will be emitting light at the rate of whatever frequency light is exciting it (i.e. the electron) this results in lines of photons being emitted in different directions all travelling at the speed of light and all spreading out in keeping with the inverse square law. The direction in which these lines of photons are emitted depends on the laws of reflection as elucidated in classical physics. However, since on average a cubic centimetre of solid material contains about 10²² atoms the lines of photons emanating from the excited material are virtually innumerable. Thus as each line of photons is emitted by an electron it comes in touch with neighbouring ‘virtual photons’ surrounding it and it passes its energy to these adjacent photons, so each real photon passes all of its energy to its neighbouring ‘virtual photon’ which is immediately promoted to a real photon which in turn can pass its energy along to its adjacent ‘virtual photons ‘ and so on. The energy of the real photon which has passed on its energy is immediately topped up or replenished from the line of real photons behind it. It is important to understand how the transfer of energy takes place during the course of promotion of the virtual photon to a real photon. The real photons energy is fixed by its configuration, its configuration at the time it was emitted determines its energy, as a result it can only pass on or receive whole amounts of this energy, nothing less and nothing more. This is the manner in which light disperses according to the inverse square law. It can now be seen that the inverse square law is a function of the ratio of how many virtual photons come into contact with a real photon. If the real photon is exposed on all sides then it is simultaneously accessible to six virtual photons that will each in turn acquire energy and be promoted to a real photon. However because of the huge number of electrons that are emitting the number of virtual photons that can interact with a real photon is limited. It can be seen that the inverse square low is an approximation of this process of promotion of virtual photons. When the source electron stops emitting and there is no longer any energy, all of the promoted photons lose their energy and turn into ‘virtual photons’, fading back into the virtual photon aether.

Note how natural this version of the propagation and dispersion of light is, it is not the physical real photon that travels but only its energy. In this way the propagation of light is brought into line with the propagation of all other manner of waves such as water waves sound waves etc., with one vital distinction. This distinction is that for as long as light is being emitted, (i.e., for as long as the photon is being excited and emitting photons) every photon in the propagating ‘wave’ front retains the same energy as the originally emitted photon.

As the light moves further from its origin the intensity of the light varies as the inverse of the square of the distance from the source. However, the energy of each individual photon remains intact, thus if it is monochromatic blue-green light with a frequency of 600 THz that is being emitted then the energy of each individual photon would be equal to

3×10⁸×6.62607004×10−34 / 5×10−7= 2.483 eV.

Thus at every point, considering that the monochromatic light has been travelling 100 Km, on a 10 billion square metre front, the energy would be 2.48eV. Energy from the original line of photons being pumped out by an electron is being dispersed, even as it moves forward at the speed of light, through all the virtual photons immediately surrounding it laterally, these in turn are passing on that energy to neighbouring virtual photons, promoting them to real photons with identical energies to the original emitted photon.

Thus at 2 metres distance from the origin, the original line of photons, taking as an example the same 500 nm wavelength, that is being pumped out at the rate of 6×10¹⁴ per second by an individual oscillating electron, has shared its energy out between three virtual photons, promoting them to real photons and making a total of four real photons, at 3 metres distance from the origin the 4 real photons would have become 9 real photons, the energy in the line behind the original photon consisting of 6×10¹⁴ photons per second being passed onto the adjoining virtual photons and ‘promoting’ them to the level of real photons. At 6 metres from the source there would be 36 ‘real’ photons and so on and at 9 m there would be 81 real photons and at 100 m there would be 10,000 real photons and so on. It should be noted that this is just a simulation using a single line of photons. In reality at a distance of a 100 metres from the source there would a huge number of linked real photons, this is a necessary corollary of simplifying the depiction. Thus as the distance from the origin increases, the original photon promotes virtual photons to real photons, in a series that increases in number exponentially; as in the series, 2, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49 etc., Similarly, as the distance increases, the energy in the line of photons behind the real photon eventually reaches its limit (i.e., the electron stops emitting) this means that the core energy of the photon is now being used, very soon, the light fades and all of the real photons that have been created in this process, turn back into virtual photons.

Thus light is created it travels through light, in turn creating more light, and in the end returns back into light. This is exactly similar to the manner in which a wave disperses its energy. It is possible to see how simply and naturally dispersion is explained using the aether model. Light waves spread out naturally and in the same manner as when a stone is dropped into a still pool of water. To those who have read this theory carefully it will be apparent how effortlessly and exactly the manner of propagation of light has been explained. It has been explained in plain language how light is able to travel as a wave, obey the inverse square law of dispersion and at the same time retain its individual identity in the form of its original energy. No mathematical abstract wave function, no disembodiment and travelling through unworldly dimensions, no being in two places at once. Here is an extremely realistic view of the propagation of light that continues the tradition of Newton, Descartes, Lorentz, Maxwell, Poincare and others who passionately pursued the existence of an aether simply because it answered all possible questions about light and its propagation as both quantum mechanics and relativity could not.


  • Electric and magnetic fields Charles Oatley, Cambridge University Press, London
  • Principles of Physics from Quantum Field theory to Classical Mechanics, Ni Jun, World Scientific, London.
  • 100 years of Planck’s Quantum, Jan Duck and SEG Sudarshan, World Scientific Press, London
  • Beyond the Electron, J.J. Thomson, Cambridge University Press, London
  • The Basics of Physics: Understanding the photoelectric effect and line spectra, Edward Willet, The Rosen Publishing Group, New York
  • Light the Physics of the Photon, Ole Keller, CRC Press\
  • Photon Creation-Annihilation: Continuum Electromagnetic Theory, Craig Grimes and Dale Grimes. World Scientific.
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Aug 31, 2020
This is in answer to Valentine Michael Smith: To your query as to “Why post it here?”

Firstly I have always appreciated ‘Live Science’ as a dependable source for scientific articles, much before I realised that ‘Live Science Magazine” even had an online forum, I used to read the articles with interest and had a ‘Live Science’ feed on my computer. The second reason I have posted here is given in the wonderful write up by the editors of this forum given below:

“In this science clubhouse, you can feel free to discuss the latest scientific discoveries or the far-out ideas that keep you up at night. And since our website is so broad, there's plenty of room for you to find the right fit. The sky's the limit. Or is it?”

Apart from that, I have found that most of the contributors, including yourself I may add, have a fairly sophisticated knowledge of physics. This makes the Live Science Forums a very appropriate forum in which to post my ideas. Gestalt Aether Theory is a comprehensive theory of physics, that covers almost every aspect of physics, from neutron stars, to black holes to gravity. My next post will be about a new theory of electricity, which I am sure will be of interest to many members.
Ahhhhm, I have a pretty keen sense of things, and great intuition and imagination. I have some Science knowledge.

If you want your theory to get anywhere in the Science world, let alone change our world, I recommend a place populated by people in the field. Or submit to a peer-reviewed place/journal. Or discuss it at Quora. Skads of those people there.
Aug 31, 2020
Ahhhhm, I have a pretty keen sense of things, and great intuition and imagination. I have some Science knowledge.

If you want your theory to get anywhere in the Science world, let alone change our world, I recommend a place populated by people in the field. Or submit to a peer-reviewed place/journal. Or discuss it at Quora. Skads of those people there.
Let me say this just once: I do no not need your advice on how to "promote" my theory. I am sure you have better things to do than to offer unasked for advice. Certainly, I have better ways to spend my time, than to answer such posts.


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