Hopfions of massive gauge bosons in early universe

By M. Bousder, H. Ez-Zahraouy

5 March 2024

This letter presents a novel model that characterizes the curvature of space-time, influenced by a massive gauge field in the early universe. This curvature can lead to a multitude of observations, including the Hubble tension issue and the isotropic stochastic gravitational-wave background. We introduce, for the first time, the concept of gauge field Hopfions, which exist in the space-time. We further investigate how hopfions can influence Hubble parameter values. Our findings open the door to utilizing hopfions as a topological source which links both gravitation and the gauge field.

See: https://arxiv.org/abs/2403.13824