In a quiet room, you can hear a pin drop. Norwegian citizen scientist Rob Stammes just heard a pin drop on Earth's magnetic field.

"It was very quiet when it happened," says Stammes, who runs a space weather observatory in Lofoten, Norway. On Oct. 17th, his magnetometer was monitoring Earth's magnetic field as it does every night, and the instrument's needle had settled itself into a straight line, indicating very low geomagnetic activity. Suddenly, Earth's magnetic field began to ring.

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"A very stable ~25 second magnetic oscillation appeared in my recordings, and lasted for more than 20 minutes," he says. "It was fantastic to see the magnetic field swing back and forth by about 0.1 degrees, peak to peak."

This kind of pure tone is rare, but it has happened before. Researchers call it a "pulsation continuous" -- or "Pc" for short. Pc waves are classified into 5 typesdepending on their period. The waves Stammes caught fall into category Pc3.

The "pin dropping" was a gentle gust of solar wind. Imagine blowing across a piece of paper, making it flutter with your breath. The solar wind can have a similar effect Earth's magnetic field. Pc3 waves are essentially flutters propagating down the flanks of our planet's magnetosphere excited by the breath of the sun.


Stammes is a longtime observer of Pc waves. Usually he catches them during Solar Minimum when "the room is quiet" for months at a time. "Recording one now so close to Solar Max is unexpected," he says. "Lately, my magnetometer traces have been too noisy for such delicate waves--so it came a surprise!"

Pc3 waves, which can only be heard in moments of quiet, can also bring the quiet to an end. The oscillations sometimes flow all the way around Earth's magnetic field and cause a "tearing instability" in our planet's magnetic tail. This, in turn, sets the stage for magnetic reconnection and geomagnetic storms.

That didn't happen on Oct. 17th, though. The pin dropped, the magnetosphere rang, and quiet resumed. Stammes is already listening for more. Stay tuned!

See: https://spaceweather.com

Recent low-orbiting observations at satellites with high-accuracy magnetometers onboard (Oersted, CHAMP, and ST5) have provided a detailed picture of the Pc3 wave structure in the topside ionosphere. Pc3 waves were detected very clearly in the compressional component of the satellite magnetic field data, whereas on the ground their signature was found in the H component. The occurrence of a significant compressional component in Pc3 pulsations in the topside ionosphere was also evidenced by radio-sounding measurements of ionospheric plasma oscillations. The following possibilities of ULF compressional disturbance excitation are considered: (1) an incident Alfvén wave generates an evanescent fast mode as a result of its interaction with the anisotropically conducting ionosphere; (2) transport of ULF wave energy from a distant source toward the ionosphere predominantly occurs by a fast mode. We estimate quantitatively the expected relationships between the Pc3 wave magnetic components above the ionosphere and on the ground produced by these different mechanisms and have derived simple analytical relationships between the compressional and ground signals for both mechanisms. Numerical modeling with the use of exact formulas has shown that these approximations work well over a wide range of wave scales. This model has been applied to the interpretation of Pc 3 waves observed by CHAMP in the upper ionosphere and by ground stations at midlatitudes. In general, the observed ratio between the compressional component in space and the ground signal corresponds better to the scenario of direct fast mode transmission to the ground.

See: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/251428252_Structure_of_ULF_Pc3_waves_at_low_altitudes

When interpreted in terms of MHD wave modes, the oscillations in the fields are consistent with fast magnetosonic waves propagating Earthward. These results lend strong support to the view that ULF waves generated near the quasi-parallel portion of the Earth's bow shock wave propagate into the magnetosphere and are observed as compressional Pc 3 pulsations in the dayside magnetosphere.
Peripheral neuropathy is an umbrella term for nerve diseases that affect a specific subdivision of your nervous system. Many different conditions can cause peripheral neuropathy, which means a wide range of symptoms is also possible. Peripheral neuropathy can also affect different body parts, depending on how and why it happens.

The term “peripheral” is from the Greek word that means “around.” “Peripheral” in this context means outside of or away from the “central” nervous system. The term neuropathy combines two words that trace their origins back to ancient Greek:
  • Neuro-: From the Greek word “neuron,” meaning “nerve.”
  • -pathy: From the Greek word “pathos,” meaning “affliction” or “condition.”
Your nervous system has two parts, the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. Your brain and spinal cord are the two components that make up your central nervous system. Your peripheral nervous system consists of all the other nerves in your body. It also includes nerves that travel from your spinal cord and brain to supply your face and the rest of your body.

Peripheral neuropathy can refer to any condition affecting your peripheral nerves. Healthcare providers often use the terms “neuropathy” and “polyneuropathy” (meaning “disease of many nerves”) interchangeably with “peripheral neuropathy.” Peripheral nerves are farthest from the central nervous system, and they often show the earliest and most severe effects of these conditions.

Peripheral neuropathy can affect anyone, regardless of age, sex, race or ethnicity, personal circumstances, medical history, etc. However, some people are at greater risk for specific types of peripheral neuropathy (see below under Causes and Symptoms for more about this).

Peripheral neuropathy is also very common with some age-related diseases. That means the risk of developing peripheral neuropathy increases as you get older.

Peripheral neuropathy is common, partly because this term refers to so many conditions. About 2.4% of people globally have a form of peripheral neuropathy. Among people 45 and older, that percentage rises to between 5% and 7%.

To understand how peripheral neuropathy affects your body, it helps to know a little about the structure of neurons, a key type of cell that makes up your nerves. Neurons send and relay signals through your nervous system using electrical and chemical signals. Each neuron consists of the following:
  • Cell body: This is the main part of the cell.
  • Axon: This is a long, arm-like part that extends outward from the cell body. At the end of the axon are several finger-like extensions where the electrical signal in the neuron becomes a chemical signal. These extensions, known as synapses, lead to nearby nerve cells.
  • Dendrites: These are small branch-like extensions (their name comes from a Latin word that means “tree-like”) on the cell body. Dendrites are the receiving point for chemical signals from the synapses of other nearby neurons.
  • Myelin: This is a thin layer composed of fatty chemical compounds. Myelin surrounds the axon of many neurons and acts as a protective covering.

Disease types​

Peripheral neuropathy happens in two main ways:
  • Demyelinating neuropathy: This happens when the myelin coating on the axon deteriorates or can’t form correctly. That affects the way signals travel through the neuron.
  • Axonal degeneration: This causes the axon to deteriorate and die off. The longer a neuron is, the worse the effect. That’s why axonal degeneration conditions tend to involve your legs and feet, which are farthest from your spinal cord and rely on connections using longer axons. Axonal degeneration is the most common pattern seen with peripheral neuropathy.

How quickly does peripheral neuropathy develop?​

How peripheral neuropathy develops, particularly the timeline of its progress, depends very much on what causes it. Injuries can cause it to develop instantaneously or within minutes or hours. Some toxic and inflammation-based forms of peripheral neuropathy may develop rapidly over days or weeks, while most other conditions take months, years or even decades to develop.

What are the symptoms of peripheral neuropathy?​

There are many different symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. This condition can affect a single nerve, a connected group of related nerves, or many nerves in multiple places throughout your body. The symptoms also depend on the type of nerve signals affected, and multiple signal types may be involved.
The symptom types (with more about them below) are:
  • Motor.
  • Sensory and pain.
  • Autonomic.

Motor symptoms​

Your peripheral nervous system carries motor signals, which are commands sent from your brain to your muscles. These signals are what make it possible for you to move around. Your muscles need nerve connections to the brain to stay healthy and work properly.
Motor symptoms include:
  • Muscle weakness and paralysis. Nerve deterioration from peripheral neuropathy weakens the connected muscles. That can cause paralysis, which may cause difficulty moving the toes, foot drop and hand weakness. Weakness can also affect muscles in the thighs, arms and elsewhere.
  • Muscle atrophy. Loss of nerve connection can cause muscles to shrink in size, as well as weaken. This especially happens in the feet, lower legs and hands with peripheral neuropathy. Sometimes there are deformities of the feet and hands because of muscle loss.
  • Uncontrolled muscle movements. Sometimes, nerves that lose their connection to the brain because of peripheral neuropathy become hyperactive on their own, causing cramps.

Sensory symptoms​

Your peripheral nerves convert information about the outside world into nerve signals. Those signals then travel to your brain, which processes those signals into what you can sense of the world around you. Peripheral neuropathy can disrupt what your senses pick up from the outside world or the ability of those senses to communicate with your brain.
The sensory symptoms of peripheral neuropathy include:
  • Tingling. This happens when there’s a problem with nerves that carry signals to your brain. This is like radio static you hear when you’re too far from the broadcasting station.
  • Numbness. This happens when nerves can’t send or relay sensory signals, causing the loss of specific types of sensations. An example of this would be picking up a cold pop can, but not feeling the smoothness or coldness of the can, or not being able to feel the texture of carpet or the temperature of the floor through your feet.
  • Imbalance and clumsiness. Nerves also carry sensations that your brain uses to keep track of the location of your hands and feet. You’re not consciously aware of these sensations, but they’re critical for balance and coordination. Without these sensations, you can experience a loss of balance, especially in the dark, and clumsiness with your hands.
  • Pain. Nerve damage from peripheral neuropathy can cause malfunctions in how and when nerves send pain signals, making pain signals more intense (hyperalgesia) or happen too easily (allodynia). It can even cause nerves to generate pain signals spontaneously. This is known as “neuropathic” pain, and it’s the most noticeable and disruptive symptom of peripheral neuropathy.

Autonomic symptoms​

Your body has several autonomic processes. These are the automatic functions of your body that happen without your thinking or even being aware of them. They include things like sweating, digestion, blood pressure control, etc. Autonomic nerve fibers carry autonomic signals. Disruptions in autonomic signals mean your body’s automatic processes can’t work correctly. Some may work off and on, while others may not work at all.

Autonomic symptoms of peripheral neuropathy can include:
  • Blood pressure changes. Your body automatically manages blood pressure, but damage to your peripheral nerves can disrupt this. That can cause sudden drops in blood pressure or increases in heart rate, especially when you stand up.
  • Sweating too much or not enough. Your body automatically manages its internal temperature, using sweating to shed heat. Peripheral nerve damage can cause you to sweat too much or not enough. That can lead to dryness and scaling on your feet, or excessive sweating after eating.
  • Bowel and bladder problems. Autonomic signals control your bowel and bladder without you having to think about them. Nerve fiber disruption can affect bowel movements (constipation or diarrhea), and can occasionally affect bladder control, too.
  • Sexual dysfunction. Your autonomic nervous system controls sexual arousal. That’s why autonomic problems can cause sexual dysfunction.
  • Other symptoms. Autonomic changes from peripheral neuropathy can also cause skin color changes, swelling, changes in the pupils of the eyes and blurry vision.
Peripheral neuropathy can happen for many reasons. These include:
  • Type 2 diabetes. The most common cause of peripheral neuropathy is unmanaged type 2 diabetes. When your blood sugar is too high for too long, it damages your peripheral nerves. That’s why people with type 2 diabetes can lose feeling in their feet and lower legs.
  • Alcohol use disorder. Excessive intake of alcohol, especially over long periods of time, can damage nerves. Alcohol use disorder is a common cause of peripheral neuropathy, and it can also contribute to vitamin deficiencies that lead to peripheral neuropathy.
  • Vitamin and nutrient deficiencies. People can develop nerve damage because they have deficiencies in certain vitamins. The deficiencies that are most likely to cause this are copper and vitamins B1, B6, B9, B12, folic acid (B9) and E. Too much vitamin B6 can also cause this.
  • Autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) can cause severe weakness. They’re also very treatable. Neuropathy can happen due to lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren syndrome, vasculitis and more.
  • Medications and toxins. Chemotherapy and certain other medications (antibiotics, and medications that treat arrhythmia and gout) can cause peripheral neuropathy. Exposure to some heavy metals and industrial chemicals can also cause it.
  • Tumors. Malignant tumors (cancer) and benign (noncancerous) tumors can both disrupt your peripheral nervous system.
  • Genetic conditions. Genetic conditions are ones you inherit from one or both parents. Examples of these causing peripheral neuropathy include amyloidosis, Fabry disease and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. There are treatments for familial amyloidosis and Fabry disease.
  • Infections. Nerve damage from infections can happen because of viruses, such as HIV, or bacteria — such as Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease. Another common example is having shingles, which can lead to lingering nerve pain.
  • Hansen disease (better known as leprosy). While the effects of this disease — which is rare in developed countries — are most visible on the skin, it also damages your peripheral nerves. It’s a very common cause of peripheral neuropathy in developing nations. worldwide
  • Trauma and surgery. Injuries and damage directly to nerves can happen from trauma or from medical procedures. Swelling or stretching can also damage nerves. This kind of damage is usually only in one location. It can be long-term or even permanent.
  • Vascular disorders (circulation-related problems). Lack of blood flow can cause peripheral neuropathy. A harmless, temporary form of this happens when you sit or lay a certain way and an arm or leg falls asleep. This goes away quickly if you shift position enough for circulation to return. More severe circulation problems can cause serious and permanent nerve damage.
  • Idiopathic neuropathy. It’s common for peripheral neuropathy to happen for unknown reasons. This type of neuropathy is known as “idiopathic” or “cryptogenic” (hidden or obscure cause).
Some of the possible causes of peripheral neuropathy are preventable. You can also lower your chances of developing it by preventing or delaying certain conditions. In general, the best preventive or precautionary steps you can take include:
  • Eating a balanced diet. Certain vitamin deficiencies, especially vitamin B12 deficiency, can affect your nervous system and cause major problems. Other vitamins, especially B6, are toxic and cause peripheral neuropathy at high levels.
  • Staying physically active and maintaining a healthy weight. This, along with managing your diet, can help prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes, which damages your peripheral nerves over time.
  • Wearing safety equipment as needed. Injuries are a major source of nerve damage. Using safety equipment during work and play activities can protect you from these injuries or limit how severe the injuries are.
  • Managing chronic conditions as recommended. If you have a chronic condition that can affect your peripheral nerves, especially type 2 diabetes, it’s important to manage it as your healthcare provider recommends. That can limit the effects of the condition or delay how long it takes to get worse.
  • Avoiding alcohol in excess. Excessive consumption of alcohol is a proven cause of peripheral neuropathy. You can reduce your risk of neuropathy (and some other medical complications) by avoiding alcohol, or consuming it in moderation only.
  • Avoiding exposures to toxins, poisons and heavy metals. Heavy metals like lead and mercury can cause severe damage to your nervous system. Mercury exposure is rare thanks to environmental regulations, but older thermometers or thermostats may still contain it. Older homes may also contain lead-based paint. Local, state and national agencies may have resources and services to help you avoid exposure to toxic metals and chemicals. If you work around such metals and chemicals, follow all safety regulations and use recommended or required protective gear.

What can I expect if I have this condition?​

The effects of peripheral neuropathy depend on the cause, the nerves it affects, your medical history, treatments you receive and more. Your healthcare provider is the best person to tell you more about what you can expect in your case.

How long does peripheral neuropathy last?​

Peripheral neuropathy can be a temporary concern, or it can be permanent. How long it lasts depends on what caused it, the extent of the damage — if any — that it caused, the treatments and more.
Peripheral neuropathy is most likely to be permanent with chronic conditions like type 2 diabetes, autoimmune diseases and genetic conditions. However, this can still vary, so it’s best to ask your healthcare provider about what’s most likely in your case.

What’s the outlook for this condition?​

Peripheral neuropathy is usually not dangerous, but it can have very disruptive effects on your life. These effects are usually not as severe when it only affects one nerve or a limited group of nerves. The more nerves it affects, the greater the potential impact.

The outlook also depends partly on your symptoms. Pain from peripheral neuropathy is usually the most disruptive symptom, but medications or other treatments may help. Autonomic symptoms are among the most serious because they involve your body’s vital functions. When those don’t work correctly, it can have very severe — and sometimes dangerous — effects.

Motor and sensory symptoms can also greatly disrupt your ability to work and go about your daily activities. They can cause problems — sometimes severe — with mobility, balance and coordination. Sensory symptoms are also disruptive, especially when they involve pain or affect your ability to control what you do with the affected body part(s).

Lastly, treatments can make a big difference in outlook. Some treatments can greatly reduce or even stop symptoms, but this varies. Your healthcare provider is the best source of information on the outlook for your case and what you can do to help.

See: https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/14737-peripheral-neuropathy

Contrary to what was once popular belief, microwaves don’t cause cancer. It’s a decades-old concern that may evoke an image of a child standing in front of a microwave, peering through the dimly-lit door, only to be told to take a few steps back or they could be sickened by an inexplicable illness or worse — radiation poisoning.

Thanks to advancements in science, engineering and technology, we now know that microwaves are safe, effective and efficient. However, recent research from Texas A&M University reveals that exposure to certain extremely high-powered microwave and radio frequencies may result in high stresses within the brain.

Justin Wilkerson, assistant professor in the J. Mike Walker ’66 Department of Mechanical Engineering, in collaboration with researchers at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory and the Air Force Research Laboratory, began investigating the effects of high-powered pulsed microwaves on the human body. Most commonly used for rapid cooking, microwaves are a type of electromagnetic radiation that fall between radio and infrared light on the electromagnetic spectrum.

Using computational modeling, the team’s two-simulation approach first calculates the specific absorption rate (SAR) of planar electromagnetic waves on a 3D model of a human body. The SAR values are then used to calculate changes in temperature throughout the head and brain. Those temperature changes are then used to determine how the brain tissue physically alters in response to the high-intensity microwaves.

“The microwave heating causes spatially varying, rapid thermal expansion, which then induces mechanical waves that propagate through the brain, like ripples in a pond,” Wilkerson said. “We found that if those waves interact in just the right way at the center of the brain, the conditions are ideal to induce a traumatic brain injury.”

Published in Science Advances, Wilkerson’s research revealed that when applying a small temperature increase over a very short amount of time (microseconds), potentially injurious stress waves are created. Imagine all of the microwave energy needed to pop a bag of popcorn condensed into one-millionth of a second and then directed at the brain.

However, there’s no need to worry about every day exposure to microwaves or radiofrequency levels. Wilkerson’s study included magnitudes of power far greater than anything the average human will be exposed to.

“Although the required power densities at work here are orders of magnitude larger than most real-world exposure conditions, they can be achieved with devices meant to emit high-power electromagnetic pulses in military and research applications,” Wilkerson said.

Wilkerson and the team used finite element simulations as part of their computational modeling — the same models that have been used to predict traumatic brain injury in car crashes, football impacts and even explosive blasts on the battlefield. By applying it to a new energy deposition, the microwave, Wilkerson has opened the door for more research to be conducted on the interactions between the biological body and electromagnetic fields and its applications.

See: https://today.tamu.edu/2022/04/22/e...crowave-frequencies-may-cause-brain-injuries/

See: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14628310/

Effects of RF exposure on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) have been generally accepted for exposures that are thermalizing.

Low level exposures that report alterations of the BBB remain controversial. Exposure to high levels of RF energy can damage the structure and function of the nervous system. Much research has focused on the neurochemistry of the brain and the reported effects of RF exposure.

Research with isolated brain tissue has provided new results that do not seem to rely on thermal mechanisms. It is difficult to draw conclusions concerning hazards to human health. The many exposure parameters such as frequency, orientation, modulation, power density, and duration of power exposure make direct comparison of many experiments difficult.

At high exposure power densities, thermal effects are prevalent and can lead to adverse consequences. At lower levels of exposure biological effects may still occur but thermal mechanisms are not ruled out. It is concluded that the diverse methods and experimental designs as well as lack of replication of many seemingly important studies prevents formation of definite conclusions concerning hazardous nervous system health effects from RF exposure. The only firm conclusion that may be drawn is the potential for hazardous thermal consequences of high power RF exposure.
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