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Jan 27, 2020
Hayseed, the following article may be of note to you:

It has always been impossible to clearly photograph electrons since their extremely high velocities have produced blurry pictures. In order to capture these rapid events, extremely short flashes of light are necessary, but such flashes had never been available before.

Using a newly developed technology for generating short pulses from intense laser light, called attosecond pulses, scientists at the Lund University Faculty of Engineering in Sweden have managed to capture the electron in motion for the first time.

The movie shows how an electron rides on a light wave after just having been pulled away from an atom. This is the first time an electron has ever been filmed, and the results are presented in the latest issue of Physical Review Letters.

electron film first time.jpg
Experimental results obtained in helium at an intensity of 1:2 1013 W=cm2 are shown. The results are
distinctively different from those taken in argon (Fig. 1).With this higher intensity, more momentum is transferred to the electrons, and in combination with the lower initial energy, some electrons return to the atomic potential for further interaction. In the first panel, we compare the experimental results (right) with theoretical calculations (left) obtained for the same conditions. The excellent agreement is the strongest evidence for coherent scattering effects in the experiment. All the substructures are well reproduced except for the highly saturated innermost peak in the experiment, which most likely is due to above threshold ionization of residual water in the experimental chamber.

“It takes about 150 attoseconds for an electron to circle the nucleus of an atom. An attosecond is 10^-18 seconds long, or, expressed in another way: an attosecond is related to a second as a second is related to the age of the universe,” says Johan Mauritsson, an assistant professor in atomic physics at the Faculty of Engineering, Lund University. He is one of seven researchers behind the study, which was directed by him and Professor Anne L’Huillier.

With the aid of another laser these scientists have moreover succeeded in guiding the motion of the electron so that they can capture a collision between an electron and an atom on film.
“We have long been promising the research community that we will be able to use attosecond pulses to film electron motion. Now that we have succeeded, we can study how electrons behave when they collide with various objects, for example. The images can function as corroboration of our theories,” explains Johan Mauritsson.

These scientists also hope to find out more about what happens with the rest of the atom when an inner electron leaves it, for instance how and when the other electrons fill in the gap that is created.

“What we are doing is pure basic research. If there happen to be future applications, they will have to be seen as a bonus,” adds Johan Mauritsson.

The length of the film corresponds to a single oscillation of the light, but the speed has then been ratcheted down considerably so that we can watch it. The filmed sequence shows the energy distribution of the electron and is therefore not a film in the usual sense.

“By taking several pictures of exactly the same moment in the process, it’s possible to create stronger, but still sharp, images. A precondition is for the process to be repeated in an identical manner, which is the case regarding the movement of an electron in a ray of light. We started with a so-called stroboscope. A stroboscope enables us to ‘freeze’ a periodic movement, like capturing a hummingbird flapping its wings. You then take several pictures when the wings are in the same position, such as at the top, and the picture will turn out clear, despite the rapid motion,” clarifies Johan Mauritsson.

Coherent Electron Scattering Captured By an Attosecond Quantum Stroboscope, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Mansten, M. Swoboda, T. Ruchon, A. L´Huillier, and K. J. Schafer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 073003, (issue of 22 February)



Previously scientists have only been able to study the movements of electrons using indirect methods, like measuring their spectrum. In this process, not only has it been possible to measure the resulting movement of an electron, but now we have the opportunity to monitor the entire sub-atomic event.

Attosecond pulses have been used for a number of years, but Swedish scientists have just managed to use them to film electron movements now, because attosecond pulses themselves are usually too weak to take clear pictures.

The foregoing complicated process reminds me of the operation of the Molecular Beam Epitaxy, or MBE, where the growth process involves controlling, via shutters and source temperature, molecular, and/or laser beams directed at a single crystal sample so as to achieve epitaxial growth. The beams impinge unreacted on the sample with a cryoshroud cooled by liquid nitrogen. Reactions take place predominantly on the sample surface where the source beams are incorporated into the growing film.

In any case, bravo to those who have filmed a moving electron. Again, the smallest particles are being illuminated while the largest bodies in our universe are finally being understood. Einstein, Bethe, Dirac, and so many other giants are smiling.
Mar 4, 2020
I don't believe your are strobing an electron my friend. It appears you're strobing an atomic bond. Or perhaps watching an ionization.

To strobe an electron, we have to get it alone. We don't want it bonded to anything. And we have to have it sit still. We do not want it changing energy levels. The easiest way to freeze an electron, is with a high surface charge. Not magnetic bottles. We want to strobe the rotation of the charge, not the movement thru space. That's the only way to see the structure of it.

The charge needs to be frozen, to be able to strobe it at the correct angle. If you think an electron is small now, if you look at it from the side, it would be many thousands of times smaller.

The strobe will have to be aligned with the charge. And the strobe F will have to be at least the charge rotational F. But multiples of that F would give us a beat frequency, possibly in the visual range. We need to be able to VFO these frequencies, so as to pick a non absorbent beat frequency. To ensure the charge does not change energy.

We need variable yoctosecond pulse EM durations. And even higher to see protons.

Faster switches. And there is hope. We are starting to get some fast switching with meta-materials. We can now, almost generate any F up to and a little above light. When we can do that, with up to mid gamma, we will image many things.

We will have EM spectrum catalogs on every substance. And real tricorders.
Apr 5, 2021
I believe that because of the obvious uniqueness of life only here, life should be classified as super natural. And the recognition of a life force.

In some way, this life force can re-configure and manipulate and animate, non-living matter.....into UN-natural combinations that we call living matter. Only here.

This living force goes thru cycles and has to be passed on. It consumes and propagates. Only here.

I do not believe man will ever find this life source, but I do believe we can understand natural forces, and understand natural matter.

Hopefully in the future, with better imaging techniques, we might strobe an electron, and put this silly modern science to rest. It's not a waveform, it's a real thing, a structure of matter.

But neither a life force or a particle structure are searched for. Or even recognized.

A bell curve of probability is not a structure.

Not sure where this reply fits in with my statement above, however I will say concerning this statement that a life force can be anything from one's soul to that which gives life to all creatures including amoeba's. Scientists state that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, so what happens to the 'Life Force' when a living thing dies?

Does it dissipate? Does it fall into the Earth from gravity? Does it fly into the Sun via stronger gravity? Even the Black Hole via the strongest gravity at the center of our Milky Way Galaxy? Perhaps out thru the other end of the Black Hole into another Universe? The idea's are endless!
Jan 27, 2020
When it comes to electrons, accurate measurement of position or momentum automatically indicates larger uncertainty (error) in the measurement of the other quantity.

Applying the Heisenberg principle to an electron in an orbit of an atom, with h = 6.626 ×10-34Js and m= 9.11 ×10-31Kg,
∆X × ∆V ≥ 6.626×10−344×3.14×9.11×10−31 = 10-4 m2 s-1.

If the position of the electron is measured accurately to its size (10-10m), then the error in the measurement of its velocity will be equal or larger than 106m or 1000Km.

Heisenberg principle applies to only dual-natured microscopic particles and not to a macroscopic particle whose wave nature is very small.

Electromagnetic radiations and microscopic matter waves exhibit a dual nature of mass/ momentum and wave character. Position and velocity/momentum of macroscopic matter waves can be determined accurately, simultaneously. For example, the location and speed of a moving car can be determined at the same time, with minimum error. But, in microscopic particles, it will not be possible to fix the position and measure the velocity/momentum of the particle simultaneously.

An electron in an atom has a mass of 9.91 × 10-31Kg. A powerful light may collide with the electron and illuminate it. Illumination helps in identifying and measuring the position of the electron. The collision of the powerful light source, while helping in identification increases the momentum of the electron and makes it move away from the initial position. Thus, when fixing the position, velocity /momentum of the particle would have changed from the original value. When the position is exact, error occurs in the measurement of velocity or momentum. In the same way, the measurement of momentum accurately will change the position.

Hence, at any point in time, either position or momentum can only be measured accurately.
Simultaneous measurement of both of them will have an error in both position and momentum. Heisenberg quantified the error in the measurement of both position and momentum at the same time.

The Swedish scientists (J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Mansten, M. Swoboda, T. Ruchon, A. L´Huillier, and K. J. Schafer at the Lund University Faculty of Engineering in Sweden) are using a newly developed technology for generating extremely short pulses of intense laser light, called attosecond* pulses and they have managed to capture the electron in motion for the first time.

The movie shows how an electron rides on a laser light wave after just having been pulled away from an atom. This is the first time an electron has ever been filmed.

In honor of the iconic science fiction franchise’s latest film “Star Trek: Into Darkness“ — set for release on May 17 — IBM has unveiled amazing new photos crafted from the microscopic movements of single carbon atoms.

IBM carbon atoms .jpg

“Scientists used a microscope the size of a room to maneuver single atoms to form the shapes of the Enterprise, the Vulcan salute, the Star Trek logo, a U.S.S. Enterprise the height of a single nanometer, and an animation of the Star Trek logo,” IBM officials said in a statement.

* An attosecond is equal to one quintillionth of a second (or 0.000000000000000001 seconds).



The electron has been filmed like the atom before it. Gradually, the mysteries of the molecular, atomic and sub-atomic spaces are giving way to modern intervention. As the singer/songwriter Jim Morrison of The Doors sang, "Love hides in molecular structures.**"

** The Doors 'Love Hides' (from The Doors LP 'Got Live If You Want It'):
Love hides in the strangest places.
Love hides in familiar faces.
Love comes when you least expect it.
Love hides in narrow corners.
Love comes to those who seek it.
Love hides inside the rainbow.
Love hides in molecular structures.
Love is the answer.

You may disagree about whether the electron was really filmed or not, but should it put a hook in you, see below.

Contact any or all of the primary investigators, listed above, at:
Lund University
Lund, SE 223 50
Phone: +46 46 35 04 00

Sep 10, 2021
It all depends on how far the human mind goes, or artificial intelligence. We have not yet evolved enough to consider options for life in the galaxy.