Question The Electromagnetic Universe : A New Theory of Physics (part 2)

Aug 31, 2020
42
6
55
The Aether Or Medium

To gain some idea of how virtual photons came to permeate the entire Universe, it is first necessary to examine in detail another of the out dated concepts of quantum mechanics. This is the concept of the frequency of a photon. According to quantum mechanics:

Photons don’t have a frequency. Frequency is a wave property and is a property that applies only when you look at light as a wave. A photon has an energy, which is related to, but different from, frequency. So we sometimes use the term ‘the frequency of a photon’ but really as a short hand for “the frequency of the wave that will manifest later as a photon”.

Another way of stating this is by this means that if you know the energy of the photon it is possible to determine its frequency by dividing the photon energy by h planck’s constant. Whatever the answer might be it is fairly obvious that the quantum mechanics concept of what the frequency of a single photon might be is shrouded in obscurity; due to the wave-particle duality there can be no definite answer to the question.

This presents a problem when looked at from a purely mechanical point of view. The problem arises as follows, if one looks at a modern day smart phone one is aware that it is processing data at the rate of several gigabits per second. Consider what the term processing denotes, it means taking input data, evaluating it and outputting the result. The electron is miniscule in size and the distances over which it has to oscillate are even smaller. It is then only natural that the electron should oscillate at frequencies of several hundreds of terahertz and emit photons at that rate. In fact not to do so would be odd. Gestalt Aether Theory, therefore, takes the concept of photon frequency away from the fuzzy abstract notions of quantum mechanics where it is an abstract vague property of the photon and puts it on a sound practical basis. Therefore when we talk of an electron emitting photons with a frequency of 600 THz it means exactly that. The electron is emitting photons at the prodigious rate of 600,000,000,000,000 photons per second. In what direction are these photons emitted? These photons are emitted in a single direction as a line of photons of the same frequency, wavelength and energy. Why? If one looks at the physics behind the emission of a photon, it is apparent that the electron absorbs energy and mediates its energy by emitting that energy in the form of a photon, the process involves the force of recoil. To cope with these forces of recoil the electron rebounds against the nucleus absorbs more energy and again emits this energy at the exact same position as before, hence photons are emitted as a line of photons in a specific direction. Proof that this is indeed the case can be seen in the working of any atomic clock. Frequency is directly related to the rate of emission of photons by the electron or to put it another way by the electron’s rate of oscillation. There exists ample evidence that this theory of how photon frequency is linked to rate of emission or oscillation of the electron is correct in the working of atomic clocks.

We are now in a position to understand the concept of a Universe completely submerged or steeped in a sea of virtual photons. Having established that photons are emitted and absorbed at phenomenal rates, it is time to return to the first moments of the Big Bang that is thought to have occurred out of a singularity more than 13.7 billion years ago! Although it is generally accepted that the Big Bang was not a bang in the accepted sense of an explosion but that it involved a rapid inflation or expansion, opinions is almost unanimous that light must have been present also. It is almost a corollary that if matter was present light (or rather photons) must have been present also, although light might not at this early stage of the Universe have been able to propagate. The question is what happened to all that light, look at the ratio; for every atom of matter, photons were being emitted at the rate of hundreds of Terahertz per second (10¹⁴) per second. What happened to those photons? Emitted not over seconds but hundreds of thousands, even millions of years? They could not have escaped over the borders of the Universe because by definition nothing exists outside the Universe, so they must have been contained in some way within the Universe. Don’t confuse this with CMBR (Cosmic microwave background radiation) for one thing Gestalt Aether Theory does not hold that optical photons can be red shifted, no matter what the circumstances, to the extent that they transform into microwaves. (Later this will be explained in detail).

In support of this statement we are now in a position to look at light from a little more than 13 billion years ago (i.e., a source that is 13 billion light years distant) and in no instance has this light red-shifted into the microwave region. GAT holds that such a thing cannot happen. What is the CMBR then? It is extremely likely that it is a heat signature left over from the Big Bang involving mostly photons in the plus 1200 nm wavelength range. As this heat was absorbed and radiated and absorbed over and over again it took on the character of the smooth or even black body radiation signal that we see today. If this is indeed the case what happened to the light that was created at that time along with the heat? It is presumed that if light could not escape over the borders of the Universe the scenario of a linked net- work of photons that permeate the whole of the Universe is a very plausible theory. If one examines the model for the structure of the photon proposed earlier, it is possible to see that these photons can link together not only vertically end to end but also laterally. When photons are linked in this manner their energy is shared. The theory is that as the Universe continued to expand the vast numbers of photons present formed a linked network. As time passed and the Universe continued to expand the network of linked photons expanded with the Universe filling every part of it. As the expansion of the Universe proceeded, the individual energy of the photons was shared out among the network of linked photons, till eventually they reached such a low state of energy (about 10-⁴⁰J) that they for all practical purposes ceased to exist! Because of this extremely low energy it was possible for this linked network of photons that permeated the entire Universe, to exist for practically ever, with life-times similar to that of the proton or the electron. This process can be attributed to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle as it relates to time and energy:

Δe Δt > h

The HUP states that if an event happens in an extremely short period of time < 10-15 s or possesses very small energies, it can be ignored by the laws of energy conservation which rule all processes at the macro level.

These ‘virtual photons’ of the virtual photon aether were almost stationary dipole particles with which, because of their extremely low energy, no matter would or could interact, thus they could travel through matter as if it did not exist. Eventually when all of the Universe was full of this linked network of photons, light began to propagate in the way that is familiar to us today. When an electron within an atom emits a real photon the photons of the virtual photon aether, line up forming a line whose ends rest on the shoulders of infinity and the energy of the real photon travels along this line of linked photons.

This explanation of how an aether like medium formed consisting of extremely low energy photons that permeated every part of the Universe and yet was absolutely permeable to all forms of matter and would allow massive objects such as the planets the sun, the moon and the stars to pass through it without the slightest opposition, explains everything that was ever known about light. The aether does not interact with matter because no atom could possibly need or utilise such low energies, thus virtual photons of the aether pass through all atoms as if they did not exist. The existence of such an aether also explains in easily understandable terms, how light can propagate according to the inverse square law and still enable individual photons to maintain the same energies that they possessed at the time they were created. This Aether model explains how and why the speed of light is a constant and invariant and unaffected by the motion of either the source or the observer or of both. This is a perfectly modelled system for light and all of its properties; it makes sense as the quantum mechanics model for light and electromagnetic radiation does not.

The Gestalt Aether Theory On The Propagation And Dispersion Of Light:

The term ‘light’ is deliberately used in the sub-title instead of ‘electromagnetic radiation’ since according to Gestalt Aether Theory there is a small but significant difference in the manner of production and propagation of high energy, high frequency photons like visible light and x-rays and gamma rays and relatively low frequency, long wavelength, low energy radio-waves.

In order to introduce a new theory or concept it is first necessary to review how the old system worked. Here is how the propagation of light is explained in terms of quantum mechanics:

“There’s no way to chart the photon’s trajectory from the source to the detector. The photon is not real in the sense that a plane flying from San Francisco to New York is real. Werner Heisenberg, among others, interpreted the mathematics to mean that reality doesn’t exist until observed. “The idea of an objective real world whose smallest parts exist objectively in the same sense as stones or trees exist, independently of whether or not we observe them ... is impossible,” he wrote. (Scientific American , “What does Quantum Theory actually Tell us about Reality?” Anil Anthaswamy. Sep3 , 2018)

Reading the above it is immediately possible to realise that quantum mechanics ( at least as it has to do with wave-particle duality) is a pretty mixed up theory, which apart from complicated maths, based almost entirely on imaginary numbers (multiple dimensions), does not offer much of an explanation for anything. Quantum theory has never been adequately able to explain the dispersion of light according to the inverse square law. This is a huge lacuna considering that 400 years have passed since Newton and Huygens and 150 years since Maxwell. We should, by this time, have had a beautiful theory on how light propagates, we don’t. Gestalt Aether Theory offers one such beautiful and unified theory.

But what is the actual mechanism by which light propagates in Gestalt Aether Theory? Light propagates as follows. The ‘virtual photons’ of the aether which incidentally resemble a field of to all purposes stationary electric di-poles, are oriented at random until a real photon is emitted by an electron, when this happens the ‘virtual photons of the Aether, line up in the direction of propagation of the real photon forming themselves into a line whose ends rest on the shoulders of infinity. The energy of the real photon then travels along this line of virtual photons. However, and this is of significance, as the energy of the line of real photons travels along the line of aligned ‘virtual photons’ it is dispersed not only forward but also laterally so that the energy from the line of real photons spreads out in a cone shape from its point of origin. All of the area covered by this shape is filled with the energy of the original line of photons being emitted at the source. In order to understand how this dispersion takes place it is necessary to understand the concept of promotion wherein ‘virtual photons’ adjacent and in contact with the energy of the line of real photons are promoted to the status of real photons through a transfer of energy. In order to understand how this happens, look at the lead photon, it has been emitted at the head of line of connected photons and it is moving away (its energy) is moving away at the speed of light. Each photon in this line of connected photons possess identical energies. When a photon in this line of connected photons comes into contact with the line of virtual photons aligned in its direction of propagation it results in an energy transfer not only forward but laterally also. This means that a virtual photon in contact moving beside the real photon will acquire all of the energy from the real photon and the energy of the real photon will be replenished from the line of photons behind it. This is why light, as it propagates, follows the inverse square law of dispersion. In incoherent light every receptive electron in the receptive substance will be emitting light at the rate of whatever frequency light is exciting it (i.e. the electron) this results in lines of photons being emitted in different directions all travelling at the speed of light and all spreading out in keeping with the inverse square law. The direction in which these lines of photons are emitted depends on the laws of reflection as elucidated in classical physics. However, since on average a cubic centimetre of solid material contains about 10²² atoms the lines of photons emanating from the excited material are virtually innumerable. Thus as each line of photons is emitted by an electron it comes in touch with neighbouring ‘virtual photons’ surrounding it and it passes its energy to these adjacent photons, so each real photon passes all of its energy to its neighbouring ‘virtual photon’ which is immediately promoted to a real photon which in turn can pass its energy along to its adjacent ‘virtual photons ‘ and so on. The energy of the real photon which has passed on its energy is immediately topped up or replenished from the line of real photons behind it. It is important to understand how the transfer of energy takes place during the course of promotion of the virtual photon to a real photon. The real photons energy is fixed by its configuration, its configuration at the time it was emitted determines its energy, as a result it can only pass on or receive whole amounts of this energy, nothing less and nothing more. This is the manner in which light disperses according to the inverse square law. It can now be seen that the inverse square law is a function of the ratio of how many virtual photons come into contact with a real photon. If the real photon is exposed on all sides then it is simultaneously accessible to six virtual photons that will each in turn acquire energy and be promoted to a real photon. However because of the huge number of electrons that are emitting the number of virtual photons that can interact with a real photon is limited. It can be seen that the inverse square low is an approximation of this process of promotion of virtual photons. When the source electron stops emitting and there is no longer any energy, all of the promoted photons lose their energy and turn into ‘virtual photons’, fading back into the virtual photon aether.

Note how natural this version of the propagation and dispersion of light is, it is not the physical real photon that travels but only its energy. In this way the propagation of light is brought into line with the propagation of all other manner of waves such as water waves sound waves etc., with one vital distinction. This distinction is that for as long as light is being emitted, (i.e., for as long as the photon is being excited and emitting photons) every photon in the propagating ‘wave’ front retains the same energy as the originally emitted photon.


As the light moves further from its origin the intensity of the light varies as the inverse of the square of the distance from the source. However, the energy of each individual photon remains intact, thus if it is monochromatic blue-green light with a frequency of 600 THz that is being emitted then the energy of each individual photon would be equal to

3×10⁸×6.62607004×10−34 / 5×10−7= 2.483 eV.

Thus at every point, considering that the monochromatic light has been travelling 100 Km, on a 10 billion square metre front, the energy would be 2.48eV. Energy from the original line of photons being pumped out by an electron is being dispersed, even as it moves forward at the speed of light, through all the virtual photons immediately surrounding it laterally, these in turn are passing on that energy to neighbouring virtual photons, promoting them to real photons with identical energies to the original emitted photon.

Thus at 2 metres distance from the origin, the original line of photons, taking as an example the same 500 nm wavelength, that is being pumped out at the rate of 6×10¹⁴ per second by an individual oscillating electron, has shared its energy out between three virtual photons, promoting them to real photons and making a total of four real photons, at 3 metres distance from the origin the 4 real photons would have become 9 real photons, the energy in the line behind the original photon consisting of 6×10¹⁴ photons per second being passed onto the adjoining virtual photons and ‘promoting’ them to the level of real photons. At 6 metres from the source there would be 36 ‘real’ photons and so on and at 9 m there would be 81 real photons and at 100 m there would be 10,000 real photons and so on. It should be noted that this is just a simulation using a single line of photons. In reality at a distance of a 100 metres from the source there would a huge number of linked real photons, this is a necessary corollary of simplifying the depiction. Thus as the distance from the origin increases, the original photon promotes virtual photons to real photons, in a series that increases in number exponentially; as in the series, 2, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49 etc., Similarly, as the distance increases, the energy in the line of photons behind the real photon eventually reaches its limit (i.e., the electron stops emitting) this means that the core energy of the photon is now being used, very soon, the light fades and all of the real photons that have been created in this process, turn back into virtual photons.

Thus light is created it travels through light, in turn creating more light, and in the end returns back into light. This is exactly similar to the manner in which a wave disperses its energy. It is possible to see how simply and naturally dispersion is explained using the aether model. Light waves spread out naturally and in the same manner as when a stone is dropped into a still pool of water. To those who have read this theory carefully it will be apparent how effortlessly and exactly the manner of propagation of light has been explained. It has been explained in plain language how light is able to travel as a wave, obey the inverse square law of dispersion and at the same time retain its individual identity in the form of its original energy. No mathematical abstract wave function, no disembodiment and travelling through unworldly dimensions, no being in two places at once. Here is an extremely realistic view of the propagation of light that continues the tradition of Newton, Descartes, Lorentz, Maxwell, Poincare and others who passionately pursued the existence of an aether simply because it answered all possible questions about light and its propagation as both quantum mechanics and relativity could not.

References:

  • Electric and magnetic fields Charles Oatley, Cambridge University Press, London
  • Principles of Physics from Quantum Field theory to Classical Mechanics, Ni Jun, World Scientific, London.
  • 100 years of Planck’s Quantum, Jan Duck and SEG Sudarshan, World Scientific Press, London
  • Beyond the Electron, J.J. Thomson, Cambridge University Press, London
  • The Basics of Physics: Understanding the photoelectric effect and line spectra, Edward Willet, The Rosen Publishing Group, New York
  • Light the Physics of the Photon, Ole Keller, CRC Press\
  • Photon Creation-Annihilation: Continuum Electromagnetic Theory, Craig Grimes and Dale Grimes. World Scientific.
 

ASK THE COMMUNITY

Latest posts