Question The Electromagnetic Universe : A New Theory of Physics (Part 1)

Aug 31, 2020
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Gestalt Aether Theory, is both a Grand Unified Theory and the first Theory of Everything. What is the difference between a grand Unified Theory and a Theory of Everything? A grand Unified theory is one that explains all phenomena under one head, at present any theory that can unify electromagnetism and gravity under one heading would be termed a Grand Unified Theory, a Theory of Everything can have disparate explanations for different phenomena but explains them all.

What is Gestalt Aether Theory and how can it be considered to be a Theory of Everything? Gestalt Aether Theory represents a new paradigm in the history of physics. By looking at previously collected data in a radically new way, Gestalt Aether Theory both rationalises and explains all of the different phenomena in physics under a single heading. Therefore, the propagation of light, an explanation of gravity, an explanation of magnetism, electricity and super conductivity is achieved using a single paradigm. Physical phenomena can be calculated using prevailing mathematical formula as a first approximation, making it a versatile, accurate and verifiable theory.

Nothing in science is certain, any theories that have been proposed and formulated have been founded on observation and experiment and if the observations and experiments explain the phenomenon accurately a new theory is created. However, sometimes it becomes necessary, as new facts come to light, to alter or discard old theories in favour of new ones. Yet this process is not always infallible and not always followed; sometimes a theory gets so mired down in usage that even though it seems to go against circumstantial evidence to the contrary, it is still taken to be the more acceptable solution. There are many instances of this kind in present day physics where better, proven alternatives have been passed over in favour of established customs and practises. In this paper several such instances are examined: they include electric and magnetic fields, the propagation of light, the propagation of gravity, the propagation of electricity, the theory of wave-particle duality and several other such phenomena that should if reason is followed be abandoned or re-examined due to new hard evidence or even circumstantial evidence pointing to other explanations than existing ones.



Electric and Magnetic Fields:


Consider the following; a moving electric field creates a magnetic field, and a moving magnetic field creates an electric field. Not only are the two types of fields connected, but one type of field can create the other. Maxwell had created a single, unified description of electricity and magnetism. He had united two different forces into a single unified force, which we now call electromagnetism. Einstein by introducing the Lorentz transformations "mixed-up" the two fields, transforming one into the other, and so the notion of whether what is observed is an electric field or a magnetic field is observer dependent. Yet aren’t all of these conclusions circling around a more basic observation without actually stating it. What if independent electric and magnetic fields do not exist? What if the manifestation of both the electric field and the magnetic field were two aspects of the same phenomena? Surely this seems to be a more logical conclusion than to suppose that two such intimately connected phenomena are independent entities? Just to see where this goes what happens if we consider the possibility of some kind of mechanical medium or field existing that is responsible for both electric and magnetic effects. If so what would this new manifestation or medium look like, how could it be described?
In order to understand the above question it would be necessary to return to the concept of a medium or an aether. In recent times the whole concept of a medium through which light (electro-magnetic radiation) can propagate has fallen out of favour, so much so that even to mention the possibility of the existence of such a substance invokes severe censure. At the risk of invoking such censure and continuing with the surmise of the existence of a type of field that could be thought of as a medium, the possible nature of such a medium is examined. What would such an electromagnetic field look like? Suppose, that there existed an electromagnetic field consisting of infinitesimal discrete independent individual electromagnetic di-poles that permeated every part of the Universe? How would it affect things? To begin with such a field would form a preferred frame of reference since it would provide co-ordinates for every part of the Universe and also be the frame of reference in which the speed of light was a constant, since it would be analogous to a wave travelling through a medium. This means that Einstein’s theory of a space time continuum would no longer hold good. Such a medium would also provide a limiting speed for the speed of light (electromagnetic radiation) and be the limiting speed of the Universe. It would be responsible for causality and would also, since it can be considered to be pure energy, be responsible for manifesting mass energy equivalence. Thus instead of having numerous fields to explain every type of force a single tangible (real) field would serve to explain all of the forces. According to conservative estimates, quantum mechanics recognises more than 400 different types of fields, one for each particle and anti-particle. According to some branches of quantum mechanics there exist not just 400 different particles but literally thousands of particles together with their associated fields. Here is what Dr. Michio Kaku a particle physicist has to say:

There are 60 sub-atomic particles they have discovered that can explain the thousands of other sub-atomic particles, and the model is too ugly. This is my analogy: it's like Scotch tape and taping a giraffe to a mule to a whale to a tiger and saying this is the theory of particles....... We have so many particles that Oppenheimer once said you could give a Nobel Prize to the physicist that did not discover a particle that year. We were drowning in sub-atomic particles.... (Michio Kaku)

So what does this mean? Does one set of rules exist for mainstream physics where any proposal, claiming to be backed by experimental result is supported, while anyone outside the magic circle is not allowed to raise any conjectures whatsoever?

An examination of the circumstantial evidence in favour of the existence of such a field of electromagnetic particles that occupy every space in the Universe will be briefly attempted. Firstly, it has been established that this field exists everywhere, for instance the Voyager space craft are able to make and receive radio transmissions from 20,000,000,000 km away. We can also receive light from a distance 13.5 billion light years away, this is fairly drastic evidence that the whole of the Universe is indeed permeated by some field through which light can propagate. The theory that these are two different and separate fields namely the electric field and the magnetic field, is once again brought into question. If two independent fields existed, what force is responsible for always under all circumstances keeping them together, as would be need to be done if light was to travel for distances of 13.5 billion light years. Further when Maxwell determined that light travelled at a fixed speed v in the Aether, he used the equation:

lightspeedeq copy.jpg

Here µ stands for the permeability of free space and ε stands for the permittivity of free space. Both of the properties had to be determined through experiment. Permeability is the ability of a substance to undergo polarisation while permittivity represents the resistance of a substance to the passage of an electric current. This is another piece of circumstantial evidence pointing to the existence of a field, since a vacuum by its very definition is supposedly empty or void and cannot in theory undergo polarisation.

The question that will be examined next concerns how such a medium or aether, consisting of discrete electromagnetic di-pole points that permeate the entire Universe could have come into existence.

The Gestalt Aether Theory model of the photon is as follows:

J.J. Thomson discovered the electron in 1897, this was followed just three years later in 1900 by Max Planck’s discovery that energy was delivered not in a smooth continuous form as had hitherto been believed but as tiny discrete individual packets of energy which he termed quanta. This discovery of the discrete particulate nature of energy threw the whole of the world of physics into chaos. Such a thing was unheard of. In 1905 Einstein explained how quantisation of energy worked through the photoelectric effect.

What is interesting is the rapidity with which events followed each other, surely given the extreme rapidity with which new ideas were being assimilated there remained room for error? Nothing can be sacrosanct on the grounds that it has been proposed. It had been known since the mid eighteenth century when Coulomb performed his experiments with static electricity that positive and negative charge existed in nature. After J.J. Thomson’s discovery of the electron it became known that the electron was the charged particle responsible for observed electrical effects and that when subjected to a potential difference that it radiated energy. In 1905 Einstein demonstrated that the energy packets or quanta that had been discovered by Max Planck must each contain a fixed frequency, wave-length and energy and that these energy packets or photons had their origin in electrons. So far everything seemed fairly logical and easy to explain. The difficulties began when the two dissimilar characteristics of light, the wave characteristic and the particle characteristic had to be rationalised and explained as a single phenomenon. Existing theories formulated by quantum mechanics were never able to adequately come to grips with this problem in a way that would explain these two dissimilar aspects of light. This inability on the part of physics to explain the nature of light can be considered to be the greatest failure of modern day physics. Therefore when formulating a new theory of physics this inability of physics to explain even the simplest properties of light namely its mode of propagation from point A to point B was deemed the most fitting place to start when formulating a new theory.

In formulating the Gestalt Aether Theory it was decided to move away from the statistical methods favoured by quantum mechanics to explain natural phenomena with its heavy dependence on arcane mathematical formula dealing in imaginary numbers and multiple dimensions and to follow the path of logical arguments; namely observation, hypotheses, experiment and theory, used prior to the development of quantum mechanics. This followed the path of Crick and Watson in formulating a new physical model for the structure of DNA that depended on observation, evaluation and detection of data rather than on a purely theoretical approach.

First the observed properties of the photon came under intense observation and study. The properties of the photon were tabulated and examined for how they could fit a physical or mechanical model that would account for all of the observed properties of the photon.

The observed properties of the photon were noted to be as follows:-

  • The photon has no mass.
  • The photon is never at rest, from the moment it is emitted it is in movement.
  • The photon always travels at a constant speed namely 299,792 km/s, the speed of light in a vacuum.
  • The photon is electrically neutral.
  • The photon follows the inverse square law of dispersion and hence travels like a wave in a medium.
  • The photon maintains its energy or identity intact over huge distances. The energy of an individual photon never changes and never dissipates, this gives it the quality of a particle.
  • The photon exists as trillions of different frequencies, wave-lengths and energies.
  • Radio waves also possess the same properties of the photon although they are huge in wave-length, a 60Hz radio-wave has a wavelength of 5,000,000 m.
  • All photons have their genesis in electrons.
  • A photon has the characteristics of both a wave and a particle.
These were the properties of the photon that had to be considered when devising a new structural model. The reasoning behind the creation of this photon model were as follows:

Since the electron is a unit of electrical energy, what could be more natural than that it regulates its energy by emitting or absorbing pulses of electrical energy? These pulses of energy might take the form of bands of energy that become electrically polarised. This model of the photon has to be considered very, very carefully. Not only is the fact that the tiny electron with a classical radius of 10^−13cm has to produce an incredible range of photons, trillions and trillions of possible energies, frequencies and wavelengths under consideration but also the fact that quantum mechanics treats each of these trillions and trillions of frequencies, wavelengths and energies as individual wave-particles. Is this conjecture that each individual photon has an independent existence tenable? If it is true that every photon has an independent existence then the question that must be asked is, how is it possible? What is the mechanism by which these photons are produced in such an astonishing array of frequencies, wavelengths and energies? Where are these photons stored? How are they accessed? How do they know when they will be needed? These are the types of questions that quantum mechanics either cannot answer or deems to be below consideration. Thought should now be given as to which theory is more acceptable. The quantum mechanics theory, which is the accepted mainstream theory of physics today and which chooses to completely ignore the subject of where, when, why and how electrons emit photons or the new theory suggested by Gestalt Aether Theory that photons of different energies and wavelengths are formed as the result of electrons mediating their energy by emitting pulses of energy that form into a stable configuration that we know of as photons.

Elaborating on the Gestalt Aether Theory on the formation of photons: The electron is a charged particle; could it be possible that it mediates its energy by emitting or absorbing pulses of electric energy? On giving the matter thought it seems that the notion that the electron emits pulses of electrical energy is a distinct possibility because it puts the electron in charge of what energies to absorb or emit. Using such a stratagem, it is possible for the electron to emit extremely accurately metred amounts of energy. For instance using this model of energy transfer it would be possible for an electron to accurately determine between photon energies differing by even fractions of an electron volt. Thus by adopting this method of energy transfer and bestowing on the electron a method of accurately mediating its energy through the emission of electrical pulses which take on the form of a stable configurations has the result of allowing an electron to easily and without undue effort to emit or absorb trillions and trillions of photon combinations, each with its own unique frequency, wavelength and energy. Apart from the ability of the electron to produce all of these trillions upon trillions of photon frequencies, wavelengths and energies is also the advantage that such photons made up of electrical pulses can be formed and emitted or absorbed by the electron extremely fast, in time intervals on the order of <10^-15s . Photons are produced by the electron on demand and they are produced in prodigious numbers. To understand how the electron emits bursts or pulses of electrical energy to construct a photon see the image below:

photonemission1 (2) copy.jpg

A natural result of the bands of electrical energy emitted by the electron is that polarization will take place with the first bursts of emitted electrical energy being stronger than later ones. This order of emission, strong pulses first followed by weaker pulses, results in polarisation and the configuration of a di-pole solenoid formation that is electrically neutral. Apart from this structure the fact that the bands of energy emitted by the electron are separated by a di-electric means that these bands of energy can act as a capacitor and preserve their energy almost indefinitely. Look at the picture below to get an idea of how polarisation and the capacitor like formation may look like in a photon.:
photonemission (2) copy.jpg
Thus there now emerges a model of the photon that possesses a structure that

  1. Has no mass.
  2. Is electrically neutral.
  3. Can preserve its energy (identity) almost indefinitely
  4. Always travels at c.
  5. Is both wave and particle simultaneously.
  6. Is easily emitted and absorbed by electrons.
  7. Follows the inverse square law of dispersion.
  8. Consists of all electromagnetic radiation from radio-waves with a wavelength of 5000 Km to photons with a wavelength of a few nanometres.
In other words here is a model of the photon that fulfils all of the properties that a photon is supposed to possess. Even more important is the fact that this is a model of the photon that follows extremely closely Max Planck’s discovery of energy quanta or the identification of electromagnetic radiation as being composed of discrete individual packets of energy. This is all very well but how does this photon propagate? As referred to earlier in this paper, Gestalt Aether Theory believes that the whole of the Universe is permeated by a ‘virtual photon’ aether. What are these ‘virtual photons’. They are exactly the same as the photons whose structure is discussed above, except that they possess such low energies on the order of 10^−40 J that they for all purposes don’t exist, they are undetectable. Thus they are absolutely permeable to matter and vice-versa, no atom can have any use for photons of such low energy, as a result the photons of the virtual photon aether can pass through matter as if it didn’t exist, the virtual photon aether can pass through a planet like Saturn or the sun as if it to all purposes did not exist! Thus according to Gestalt Aether Theory, the Universe is filled with these virtual photons which to all purposes are almost stationary electromagnetic di-poles. Because of this electromagnetic property of the virtual photon aether, when a real photon is emitted by an electron, the photons of the virtual photon aether line up in the direction of the propagation of the real photon forming a line whose ends rest on the shoulders of infinity and the energy of the real photon travels along this line of aligned virtual photons. This is much the same as when a line of metal filings aligns with a magnet.

It is important to note that it is the energy of the real photon that travels along the line of virtual photons and not the photon itself. As the real photon travels forward it disperses energy laterally also, so that dispersion takes place according to the inverse square law. Here is what both a real photon and a virtual photon might look like:
photon copy2.jpg

If you have been following this elucidation so far it becomes clear that the photon is basically a wave, it doesn’t have a physical structure in the sense of a real particle, it does not possess mass, yet the fact that it contains energy and a stable physical configuration, means that it has some of the properties of a particle. This is similar to the ultra-sonic sound waves that are used in lithotripsy to shatter kidney stones. These ultrasonic sound waves are waves that possess some of the properties of a particle. This is the reason that the photon can and does travel at the speed of light; it is a natural corollary to travelling in a medium. This brings us back to the question that was left unanswered earlier on of how photons came to permeate the entire Universe forming the medium through which light could propagate that we had formerly called the aether.

To be contd......... The Electromagnetic Universe : A New Theory of Physics (part (2)
 

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