Space is Energy.....

Dec 19, 2023
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Everything known that Space is Energy....
All stars are a Linked Energy...
And God willing, to let Mankind uncover All that is Available to Earthlings...
 

indubidubly, here are some articles you might find interesting:

The Universe is thought to consist of three types of substance: normal matter, ‘dark matter’ and ‘dark energy’.

Normal matter consists of the atoms that make up stars, planets, human beings and every other visible object in the Universe.

As humbling as it sounds, normal matter almost certainly accounts for the smallest proportion of the Universe, somewhere between 1% and 10%.

In the currently popular model of the Universe, 70% is thought to be dark energy, 25% dark matter and 5% normal matter.

But ESA’s X-ray observatory, XMM-Newton, has returned new data about this content. XMM-Newton has found puzzling differences between today’s clusters of galaxies and those in the Universe around seven thousand million years ago.

Some scientists interpret this to mean that the ‘dark energy’ which most astronomers now believe dominates the Universe simply does not exist.

Clusters of galaxies emit lots of X-rays because they contain a large quantity of high-temperature gas. By measuring the quantity of X-rays from a cluster, astronomers can work out both the temperature of the cluster gas and also the mass of the cluster.

See: https://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Space_Science/Extreme_space/What_is_the_Universe_made_of

Since 1948, when it was experimentally demonstrated, the Casimir effect — where two non-charged conducting plates have a weak but measurable force on each other dependent on the inverse fourth power of the distance between them — shows the reality of vacuum zero-point fluctuations.

This "proof" of the reality of vacuum fluctuations has been repeated in many quantum field theory books and papers subsequent to 1948. The attractive force is generally ascribed to the difference in zero-point energy of the electromagnetic field between the plates and the vacuum external to them. As is well known, zero-point vacuum fluctuations are incompatible with relativistic physics and are at the root of the "cosmological constant" problem. Most texts on quantum mechanics and quantum field theory eliminate the vacuum energy by normal ordering or some other mechanism. These issues are explored in this paper and it is pointed out that a means to resolve them already exists.

If an electric, magnetic or vector potential field is present in the vacuum, the vacuum expectation of its field operator will vanish, but the expectation of the square of the field operators will not, which implies there are what are often called vacuum fluctuations of the field. In quantum field theory, each point in space has this zero-point energy associated with it, thus leading to infinite energy in any finite volume.
Both Julian Schwinger and Wolfgang Pauli cast doubt on the reality of vacuum fluctuations. In Schwinger’s source theory, the vacuum is "the state of zero energy, zero momentum, zero angular momentum, zero charge, zero whatever," and Pauli who stated that "it is quite impossible to decide whether the field fluctuations are already present in empty space or only created by the test bodies" and as late as 1946, he is quoted as saying that "zero-point energy has no physical reality."

It is often said that even the vacuum empty of all fields still retains the zero-point energy, whose average energy vanishes. What is left are vacuum fluctuations of the so-called virtual particles that satisfy ∆𝐸∆𝑡 ≳ ħ so that energy can be taken from the vacuum to allow particles to appear for very short times. These are the type of vacuum fluctuations that apply as well to the Unruh and Hawking effects, whose reality Schwinger and Pauli doubted.

However, it has been argued since 1948, when it was experimentally demonstrated, that the Casimir effect — where two uncharged parallel conducting plates have a weak but measurable force on each other dependent on the inverse fourth power of the distance between them — shows the reality of vacuum zero-point fluctuations. Casimir calculated and interpreted the attractive force between these plates as being due to the quantum electromagnetic zero-point energy of the normal modes between the plates. This "proof" of the reality of vacuum fluctuations has been repeated in many quantum field theory books and papers subsequent to 1948. The attractive force is generally ascribed to the difference in zero-point energy of the electromagnetic field between the plates and the vacuum external to them.

In 2005, Jaffe** formulated and it is worth quoting the Abstract of his paper:

"In discussions of the cosmological constant, the Casimir effect is often invoked as decisive evidence that the zero-point energies of quantum fields are "real." On the contrary, Casimir effects can be formulated and Casimir forces can be computed without reference to zero-point energies. They are relativistic, quantum forces between charges and currents. The Casimir force (per unit area) between parallel plates vanishes as a, the fine structure constant, goes to zero, and the standard result, which appears to be independent of a, corresponds to the a yielding infinity limit."

** See: R.L. Jaffe, "The Casimir Effect and the Quantum Vacuum", Phys. Rev. D 72, pp. 021301-1 to 021301-5 (2005).

Quantum theory predicts that every particle spends some time as a combination of other particles in all possible ways. These predictions are very well understood and tested.

Quantum mechanics allows, and indeed requires, temporary violations of conservation of energy, so one particle can become a pair of heavier particles (the so-called virtual particles), which quickly rejoin into the original particle as if they had never been there. If that were all that occurred we would still be confident that it was a real effect because it is an intrinsic part of quantum mechanics, which is extremely well tested, and is a complete and tightly woven theory--if any part of it were wrong the whole structure would collapse.

But while the virtual particles are briefly part of our world they can interact with other particles, and that leads to a number of tests of the quantum-mechanical predictions about virtual particles. The first test was understood in the late 1940s. In a hydrogen atom an electron and a proton are bound together by photons (the quanta of the electromagnetic field). Every photon will spend some time as a virtual electron plus its antiparticle, the virtual positron, since this is allowed by quantum mechanics as described above. The hydrogen atom has two energy levels that coincidentally seem to have the same energy. But when the atom is in one of those levels it interacts differently with the virtual electron and positron than when it is in the other, so their energies are shifted a tiny bit because of those interactions. That shift was measured by Willis Lamb and the Lamb shift was born, for which a Nobel Prize was eventually awarded.

At the LEP collider at the European particle physics laboratory CERN, millions of Z bosons--the particles that mediate neutral weak interactions--were produced and their mass was very accurately measured. The Standard Model of particle physics predicts the mass of the Z boson, but the measured value differed a little. This small difference could be explained in terms of the time the Z spent as a virtual top quark if such a top quark had a certain mass. When the top quark mass was directly measured a few years later at the Tevatron collider at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory near Chicago, the value agreed with that obtained from the virtual particle analysis, providing a dramatic test of our understanding of virtual particles.

See: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/are-virtual-particles-rea/

A virtual particle is not a particle at all and it refers to a particular disturbance in a given field that is not a particle. A particle is a nice, regular ripple in a field, one which can travel smoothly and effortlessly through space, like a clear tone of a bell moving through the air. A “virtual particle”, generally, is a disturbance in a field that will never be found on its own, but instead is something that is caused by the presence of other particles and often of other fields.
Hartmann352
 
indubidubly -

You might find this article of 21 December 2023 of interest:


Excerpt:
Einstein theory represents a robust scenario to explore the thermodynamics nature of the observable universe. Contrary to what is generally found in the literature under the thermodynamics system interpretation for an FLRW universe, see for instance [11] see also [12], where modified theories of gravity are considered; in this work we show that phase transitions in Einstein gravity are allowed by only assuming more than one fluid as matter sector. We consider the components of the dark sector as the dominant content of the universe and relate them by means of the cosmological coincidence parameter; this is the first and main consideration of our formulation.

Hartmann352
 
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