- Nov 11, 2019
General Relativity includes both of your "pieces" of gravity already.Gravity is not force, there is no Graviton or Boson. Squeezing and Stretching of the fabric of space is the key for more Proof of My Theory (Partially From Einstein). Space is Expanding, if Space Cannot Expand inside an Atom that Atom would seem to have more mass than the Particles it is made of (as is true). not because it somehow got a new Graviton Particle, but because Expanding Space outside is now pushing on Space that is no longer Pushing back. enough Mass will cause space around that mass to be pushed harder toward the mass than away from it. This will cause space to Warp. Also no Dark Matter is needed to hold a galaxy together, is does not fly apart due to the Warped space surrounding the Galaxy. So there are 2 pieced to gravity, Einstein's Warped Space, and Space pushing Matter, a push not matter riding moving Space, but space pushing mass toward mass without moving.
Gravity is not force, there is no Graviton or Boson. Squeezing and Stretching of the fabric of space is the key for more Proof of My Theory (Partially From Einstein). Space is Expanding, if Space Cannot Expand inside an Atom that Atom would seem to have more mass than the Particles it is made of (as is true). not because it somehow got a new Graviton Particle, but because Expanding Space outside is now pushing on Space that is no longer Pushing back. enough Mass will cause space around that mass to be pushed harder toward the mass than away from it. This will cause space to Warp. Also no Dark Matter is needed to hold a galaxy together, is does not fly apart due to the Warped space surrounding the Galaxy. So there are 2 pieced to gravity, Einstein's Warped Space, and Space pushing Matter, a push not matter riding moving Space, but space pushing mass toward mass without moving.
Dr. Vera Rubin, a pioneering American astronomer, died on December 25, 2016, at the age of 88. Rubin’s life in astronomy bridged three crucial transitions: the discovery of dark matter, the replacement of photographic plates by more sensitive electronic detectors, and the entrance of significant numbers of female astronomers into the profession. Rubin played a crucial role in advancing all three, but let's look at her dark matter investigations in both gas cloud and star rotation around the central galactic cores of an increasing number of galaxies.
Rubin’s most important scientific contribution was establishing that the orbiting speeds of gas clouds in the outer rims of the galaxies she examined remain constant (i.e., “flat”) to distances well beyond the visible starlight, rather than declining as in the outer parts of our Solar System. High orbital speeds in the outer parts of galaxies imply the existence of extra matter at large radial distances to insure these velocities.
As a result of Dr. Rubin’s work and later studies, we now know that galaxies are surrounded by enormous invisible halos of matter containing 5/6 of their mass which extend ten times farther out than the visible regions. Numerous arguments and thought experiments show that this so-called “dark matter” must be totally different from the ordinary, “baryonic”, matter of the periodic table. Although its nature is still unknown, it is being pursued in numerous experiments in particle accelerators and particle detectors around the world. The eventual realization that baryonic matter is only a partial component of the Universe, following the acceptance of numerous papers by Dr. Rubin and her collaborator, Kent Ford, showed that our understanding of the cosmos was shockingly incomplete and was one of the milestones that ushered in modern cosmology.
Dark matter had a somewhat checkered history before Rubin’s first paper on the subject was published in 1978 (Rubin, Ford, and Thonnard, Astrophysical Journal Letters, 225, 107, 1978). Astronomer Fritz Zwicky opened the subject in 1933 with the claim that galactic clusters would fly apart if extra matter were not present to provide more gravitational pull. A sprinkling of papers followed over the next three decades, culminating in the Santa Barbara Conference on “missing mass” in 1964, but the available data, mostly still confined to clusters and binary galaxies, were hard to analyze. The subject advanced in the early 1970’s with the early radio studies of the 21-cm line of neutral hydrogen to measure rotation speeds in the disks of gas in the outskirts of nearby galaxies. The disks in circular rotation were much simpler to analyze, and these early data hinted at the rotation curve discrepancy, but the number of sampled galaxies was small. A leader in these early radio papers was Morton Roberts at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, who actively stimulated Rubin’s interest in the subject. The PhD thesis of Albert Bosma, which appeared in 1978 just before Rubin’s first paper, extended radio data to 24 galaxies using the Westerbork interferometer, in the Netherlands, and again saw flat outer rotation curves.
Subsequently, Babcock's optical rotation curve, and that of Rubin and Ford (1970), was extended to even larger radii by Roberts and Whitehurst (1975) using 21 cm line observations that reached a radial distance of ~30 kilo parsecs. These observations clearly showed that the rotation curve of the Andromeda Galaxy, or M31, did not exhibit a Keplerian drop‐off in velocity. In fact, its rotational velocity remained constant over radial distances of 16–30 kpc. These observations indicated that the mass in the outer regions of the Andromeda galaxy increased with the distance from the galactic center, even though the stellar optical luminosity of M31 did not.
Amidst this growing body of data indicating dark matter, Rubin’s work was particularly influential because of three factors. First was the clarity and directness of the papers, including beautiful illustrations of the raw spectra that she was measuring—the flatness of the rotation curves could not be denied. Second was the fact that Rubin and her colleagues followed up with several more papers over the next few years, each one enlarging the sample size and demonstrating the seeming ubiquity of flat curves of rotations. Third were Rubin’s presentations at numerous astronomical conferences, which, like her published papers, were clear, direct, pared down to essentials, and ultimately compelling, driving her dark matter thesis home.
Vera Rubin truly lit the way in dark matter discovery and she began her work with our galactic neighbor, M-31, Andromeda, that massive and beautiful star rich cousin.
The transition to electronic sensors is indeed revolutionary, and in particular makes possible the operation of telescopes in space, and has extended infra red astronomy beyond what would be possible with wet chemistry. On the other hand the cost of a 2 1/4 inch square electronic image sensor would be completely prohibitive for an amateur. Instead I use a converted Yashica Mat 124 body with a 127mm F3.5 anastigmat originally from a projector. I get the equivalent of a 140,000 x 140,000 CCD detector using (Ilford?) Ultrafine Extreme 100 gas hypered and developed in continuously agitated Diafine. The film gets scanned with a UV laser based reader using a Hamamatsu R1306 photomultiplier, which lets me resolve the grain and stack as many as 12 exposures taken on a given night without disturbing the camera. I piggyback the Yashica on a 3 inch Lafayette equatorial refractor with 2 axis motor drive which I use as a guide scope. Using a Beowulf cluster of 24 salvaged mostly 2 core laptops, I look for variable objects with a repetition period of about 1 month to 3 years. I plan to add an objective prism to the camera for a couple of observing nights a month to distinguish between variable stars and stars with large planets, as my observing program is a search for extraterrestrial intelligence, in parallel with a radio search centered around the radio astronomy reserved TV channel 37 (608 to 614 MHz).
Plans for the future include making my own film to emulate Lippmann plates, but on reflectorized Mylar, which will improve the resolution I can get by several times and let me get 24 exposures from each camera setup. I also plan to build a cosmic ray shower telescope and an acoustic telescope, all to match the field of view of my radio receiver. I also will be monitoring potential confounding factors like variations in the earth's magnetic field, earthquake vibrations and microbarometric variations (ultra low frequency sound). After ten years or so of observation, I should be ready to say whether there is an extraterrestrial civilization within reach of my instruments in the directions I have looked.
Vera Rubin and Emmy Noether are my two brightest guiding lights (along with Albert Einstein and Richard Feynman), and though I never had the privilege of actually meeting any of them, I miss their presence in the world.
When we examine a new scientific idea, we must always fall back to Hegel and his: thesis, antithesis and synthesis.
The article says "According to Einstein's theory of general relativity, gravitons are massless and travel at the speed of light. But according to a collection of theories, together known as "massive gravity," gravitons have mass and move slower than the speed of light. These ideas, some researchers think, could resolve problems such as dark energy and the expansion of the universe. Detecting gravitational waves using photon scattering, Subhashish Banerjee said, could have the side effect of telling physicists whether massive gravity is correct."
Banerjee suggests that a photon stream can be affected by gravitons and the scattering of the photons, if they can be measured in an apparatus yet to be built, will give us an idea of the mass of the graviton. Apparently, a heavy and slower graviton will open hitherto closed doors in the hunt for dark energy.
It's a bit esoteric but somewhat understandable considering that subatomic particles are deflected all the time at CERN and at Fermi Labs. Perhaps individual light quanta can be deflected by gravitons, who can say?
I have it available in Dutch and English:
PhD Thesis, Groningen Univ., (1978).
THE DISTRIBUTION AND KINEMATICS OF NEUTRAL HYDROGEN IN SPIRAL GALAXIES OF VARIOUS MORPHOLOGICAL TYPES
P R 0 E F S C H R I F T
ter verkrijging van het
doctoraat in de Wiskunde-
aan de Rijksuniversiteit
to Groningen op gezag van
de Rector Magnificus
Dr. M.J. Janssen in het
openbaar to verdedigen op
vrijdag 17 maart 1978
des namiddags te 4 uur
geboren to Smilde
Table of Contents
- CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
- CHAPTER 2. OBSERVATIONAL MATERIAL
- CHAPTER 3. REDUCTION METHODS
- CHAPTER 4. STUDIES OF INDIVIDUAL GALAXIES
- A Neutral Hydrogen Study of the Spiral Galaxy NGC 4736
- A 21-cm Study of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 4151
- A 21-cm Study of the Galaxy NGC 5033
- A 21-cm Study of the Galaxy NGC 3198
- A 21-cm Study of the Galaxy NGC 5055
- A 21-cm Study of the Galaxy NGC 2841
- A 21-cm Study of the Galaxy NGC 7331
- Chapter 5. DESCRIPTION OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL MAPS OF SPIRAL GALAXIES
- Chapter 6. ROTATION CURVES AND MASS MODELS
- Chapter 7. DISCUSSION
- Chapter 8. SYNOPSIS, SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE WORK