If Light Can Slow Down in Vacuum, What Then?

Feb 9, 2023
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If light can slow down in vacuum, then we have a static-universe explanation of both the cosmological (Hubble) redshift and Halton Arp's intrinsic redshift. The idea of slow speed of light in vacuum is not too preposterous:

"Some physicists, however, suggest that there might be one other cosmic factor that could influence the speed of light: quantum vacuum fluctuation. This theory holds that so-called empty spaces in the Universe aren't actually empty - they're teeming with particles that are just constantly changing from existent to non-existent states. Quantum fluctuations, therefore, could slow down the speed of light." https://www.sciencealert.com/how-much-do-we-really-know-about-the-speed-of-light

Can light slow down in vacuum? Yes:

"The speed of light is a limit, not a constant - that's what researchers in Glasgow, Scotland, say. A group of them just proved that light can be slowed down, permanently..."But once that pattern has been imposed - even now the light is no longer in the mask, it's just propagating in free space - the speed is still slow," Padgett added." http://www.upi.com/Science_News/2015/01/23/Scientists-slow-down-light-particles/1191422035480

"Glasgow researchers slow the speed of light"
View: https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x2ffsym


"Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein’s theory of relativity...If it’s possible to slow the speed of light by altering its structure, it may also be possible to speed up light. The researchers are now planning to use FROG to measure other types of structured light that their calculations have predicted may travel around 1 femtosecond faster than the speed of light in a vacuum." https://www.optica.org/en-us/about/newsroom/news_releases/2016/slowing_down_light_with_a_twist/
 
Feb 9, 2023
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"The CMB is a perfect example of redshift. Originally, CMB photons had much shorter wavelengths with high associated energy, corresponding to a temperature of about 3,000 K (nearly 5,000° F). As the universe expanded, the light was stretched into longer and less energetic wavelengths. By the time the light reaches us, 14 billion years later, we observe it as low-energy microwaves at a frigid 2.7 K (-450° F). This is why CMB is so cold now." https://www.universeadventure.org/big_bang/cmb-origins.htm

No. This stretching of light is one of the most preposterous concepts in the history of science. The wavelength of light is invariable. Frequency and speed vary proportionally, in accordance with the formula

(frequency) = (speed of light)/(wavelength)

The so called Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is extremely cold because the speed of its photons is extremely slow.

The fundamental axiom of future, Einstein-free physics will be

The wavelength of light is constant (depends only on the nature of the emitting substance and is constant otherwise).

Corollaries of "The wavelength of light is constant":

Corollary 1: Any frequency shift entails (is caused by) a proportional speed-of-light shift.

Corollary 2: If the emitter and the observer travel towards each other with relative speed v, the speed of light relative to the observer is c' = c+v, as posited by Newton's theory.

Corollary 3: Spacetime and gravitational waves (ripples in spacetime) don't exist. LIGO's "discoveries" are fakes.

Corollary 4: Light falls in a gravitational field with the same acceleration as ordinary falling bodies - near Earth's surface the accelerations of falling photons is g = 9.8 m/s^2. Accordingly, there is no gravitational time dilation.

Corollary 5: The so-called cosmological (Hubble) redshift is due to the speed of light gradually slowing down as light travels through vacuum, in a non-expanding universe.

Corollary 6: The dark sky in the Olbers' paradox can be explained by two facts. 1. Low-speed, high-redshifted light (known as CMB), coming from very distant sources, is invisible. 2. Beyond a certain distance, the star light does not reach us at all (its speed relative to us is reduced to zero).
 
Mar 17, 2024
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I agree that 'This stretching of light is one of the most preposterous concepts in the history of science.' But the arguments are (mostly) wrong.

The wavelength of light is constant (depends only on the nature of the emitting substance and is constant otherwise).

This is wrong because the wavelength changes during refraction. Because the speed of light changes, and the frequency is constant.

Any frequency shift entails (is caused by) a proportional speed-of-light shift.

Frequency shift is caused by the Doppler effect, and if the speed of light decreases then its wavelength decreases, not the frequency.

If the emitter and the observer travel towards each other with relative speed v, the speed of light relative to the observer is c' = c+v, as posited by Newton's theory.

Newton viewed light as projectile like particles. That's why he added the speeds. But when light is a wave, the speeds cannot be added like this. When a car moves towards you and horns, the speed of sound does not add up to the speed of the car. Because the sound travels in a medium, and it simply does not matter how fast the car is moving. What is funny though is that Einstein's photon is also a projectile like particle, which does not require a medium. So if you envision light like that, it makes sense to add the speeds. But its wrong because light is a wave, and einsteins photon is a contradictory particle-wave.

Spacetime and gravitational waves (ripples in spacetime) don't exist. LIGO's "discoveries" are fakes.

This is correct, but you dont say why. Its because general relativity is wrong. And I explained why in my threads.

Light falls in a gravitational field with the same acceleration as ordinary falling bodies - near Earth's surface the accelerations of falling photons is g = 9.8 m/s^2.

There is no acceleration without mass (a=F/m). Light is massless so it cant be accelerated or decelerated by a force.

Accordingly, there is no gravitational time dilation.

There is no gravitational time dilation because general relativity is wrong, and Shapiro time delay is explained by refraction which slows the light in the atmosphere of massive objects like sun or planets.

The so-called cosmological (Hubble) redshift is due to the speed of light gradually slowing down as light travels through vacuum, in a non-expanding universe.

Lightwaves, like soundwaves, dont gradually slow down. They gradualy loose energy because their amplitude gradually decreases with distance (and energy is proportional with amplitude squared).

The so called Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is extremely cold because the speed of its photons is extremely slow.

The fundamental axiom of future, Einstein-free physics will be

Photons are straight from Einstein's physics. So I dont know what are they doing in Einstein-free physics.
 
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See: https://www.photonics.com/Articles/Fast_Light_Slow_Light_and_Optical_Precursors/a27833

The speed of light is scientifically proven to be the universe's maximum speed. This means no matter how hard you try, you can never exceed this speed in this universe. Hence, there are also some theories on getting into another universe by breaking this limit. The speed of light is 299,792,458 m/s in a vacuum. The speed of light in mph is 670,616,629 mph. With this speed, one can go around the globe more than 400,000 times in a minute!
One thing to note is that the speed of light slows down when it goes through different mediums. Light travels faster in air than in water, for instance. This phenomenon causes the refraction of light. Recent research from the nonlinear and quantum optics communities has demonstrated exquisite control over the speed of a pulse of light as it propagates through a material system. It is possible to control the speed of a pulse of light from its vacuum speed — 3 × 108 m/s — all the way down to the speed of a good bicyclist — a few meters per second. In part, such efforts have been motivated by the need for optically controllable pulse delays for applications such as optical buffering, data synchronization, optical memory and signal processing.
Hartmann352
 
Mar 17, 2024
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The speed of light is scientifically proven to be the universe's maximum speed.
It is not proven and a warp drive is faster than c.
This means no matter how hard you try, you can never exceed this speed in this universe.
Yay have little faith in science
Hence, there are also some theories on getting into another universe by breaking this limit. The speed of light is 299,792,458 m/s in a vacuum.
The speed light travels in a vacuum space is zero , the speed light travels across a quantum bridge due to the affects of gravity-B is 299,792,458 m/s. Light does not have an ''engine'' , the speed is external influence .
The speed of light in mph is 670,616,629 mph. With this speed, one can go around the globe more than 400,000 times in a minute!
One thing to note is that the speed of light slows down when it goes through different mediums. Light travels faster in air than in water, for instance. This phenomenon causes the refraction of light. Recent research from the nonlinear and quantum optics communities has demonstrated exquisite control over the speed of a pulse of light as it propagates through a material system. It is possible to control the speed of a pulse of light from its vacuum speed — 3 × 108 m/s — all the way down to the speed of a good bicyclist — a few meters per second. In part, such efforts have been motivated by the need for optically controllable pulse delays for applications such as optical buffering, data synchronization, optical memory and signal processing.
Hartmann352
Yes light slows down whilst been pulled through a medium ,then accelerates back to c when exiting the medium because of Gravity-B .

Your only defence is Newtons law of motion but that fails because light doesn't stop in a medium and accelerates once exiting the medium . Light has no propulsion !
 
Mar 17, 2024
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Hartmann said:
The speed of light is scientifically proven to be the universe's maximum speed.

'Scientifically proven' means nothing when I have completelly disproven general relativity which is also claimed to be 'scientifically proven'. Except its not, because it was pseudo-scientifically proven. And special relativity, being a special case of general relativity, is in the same situation.

The speed of light is nothing but the speed at which a disturbance propagates through the aether. Because light is a sound wave in the aether, as Tesla put it. And, just like its possible to exceed the speed of sound, it should be possible to exceed the speed of light.

What is funny though is that in the standard cosmoillogical model there are galaxies that do just that. Because they are propelled by a dark vacuum energy, which expands the space between them, which sends them flying at warp speeds like Starship Enterprise. Problem is according to Einstein nothing can move faster than light, and also empty space has no energy because it has no mass. And even if it had mass, or energy, it would curve the space, not expand it. So it will just bring the galaxies closer, as the mass of space would curve the space between them.
 
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