Researchers from NASA and the University of Alaska are about to perform an unusual radar experiment. They're going to ping a near-Earth asteroid using shortwave radio. The target is a 500-ft-wide space rock named "2010 XC15." When it passes by Earth on Tuesday, Dec. 27th, the HAARP array in Alaska will hit it with a pulse of 9.6 MHz radio waves.

The High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) site in Gakona, Alaska

Radio astronomers ping asteroids all the time. What's unusual about this experiment is the frequency: 9.6 MHz is hundreds of times lower than typical S-band and X-band frequencies used by other asteroid radars. The goal is to probe the asteroid's interior.

Lead investigator Mark Haynes of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) explains: "The low frequencies we are using can penetrate the asteroid, unlike S-band or X-band frequencies which reflect mostly off of the surface. Ultimately the idea is to use echoes to form tomographic images of asteroid interiors."

Knowing the internal structure of an asteroid could come in handy -- especially if you need to destroy it. 2010 XC15 poses no threat 770,000 km from Earth. Tomorrow's experiment is proof-of-concept for a scarier object: Asteroid Apophis, which will buzz Earth closer than many satellites on April 13, 2029. If shortwave asteroid radar works for 2010 XC15, it should work for Apophis, too, giving planetary defense experts key data about the asteroid's vulnerabilities.

The OVRO Long Wavelength Array near Bishop, CA, will receive echoes from HAARP's transmission

HAARP will transmit a continually chirping signal to asteroid 2010 XC15 at slightly above and below 9.6 MHz. The chirp will repeat at two-second intervals. The University of New Mexico Long Wavelength Array near Socorro, NM, and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory Long Wavelength Array near Bishop, CA, will receive the reflected signal.

"This will be the lowest frequency asteroid radar observation ever attempted," notes Lance Benner, a co-investigator from JPL. If the experiment works it could mark a significant advance in asteroid radar. Stay tuned!

See: https://spaceweather.com

What's extremely interesting is that HAARP is using the same VLF frequency range that the US Navy uses to send radio messages to our submarines. The most viable method of communicating with submerged submarines is via Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) radio or Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio. There are variable definitions, but the most common defines ELF as radio in the range of 30 Hz to 300 Hz and VLF as between 3 kHz to 30kHz. HAARP transmits the signal into space whereas the Navy transmits from Clam Lake, Wisconsin, into the Earth.

The test on 2010 XC15, with HAARP's 3.6 Megawatt output, is yet another step toward the globally anticipated 2029 encounter with asteroid Apophis. It follows tests in January and October in which the moon was the target of a HAARP signal bounce.
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Mar 4, 2020
How far can they tilt that beam from normal? They should have tried this with the moon months ago. And they should put up nucs, to blast these rocks after they pass earth. This would let us see how effective nucs are, plus hopefully blow the rock into smaller pieces, so if it passes us again, it can do no serious damage.
The HAARP facility began operating in 1999 with a 6 × 8 array of transmitting antennas that, in total, produced 960 kW of RF power—about the same as generated by 10 AM radio stations. Today, HAARP's RF power is 3.6 Megawatts.

The High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program, scientific facility for studying the ionosphere, is located near Gakona, Alaska. The main instrument is the Ionospheric Research Instrument (IRI), an array of 180 radio antennas spread over an area of 0.13 square kilometer (33 US acres). The ionosphere is the outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere.

3D model of a HAARP antenna

haarp antennas 1.jpeg
The Geophysical Institute says HAARP is the world's most capable high-power, high-frequency transmitter for study of the ionosphere.

haarp 30 off azimuth.jpeg

HAARP is shown transmitting off center, up to 30°.

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HAARP control center

The HAARP beam is broad like a flashlight’s, not narrow like a laser’s, but it can be electronically steered anywhere within 30° of zenith*—that is, local vertical—and it can operate at 3–10 MHz. Its powerful radio waves drive ionosphericelectrons back and forth in what are called plasma waves. As those driven electrons collide with each other and with background species, their temperature goes up, which is why HAARP is called an atmospheric heater.

The funding agencies are Los Alamos National Lab, the Department of Energy, the Naval Research Lab, Air Force Research Lab and the National Science Foundation.

See: https://fm.kuac.org/science/2018-04...season-since-uaf-acquired-observatory-in-2015

See: https://climateviewer.com/2014/09/19/haarp-worlds-sexiest-energy-weapon/

An experiment to bounce a radio signal off an asteroid on Dec. 27 with signals, or "chirps", will serve as a test for probing a larger asteroid that in 2029 will pass closer to Earth than the many geostationary satellites that orbit our planet.

The High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program research site in Gakona will transmit radio signals to asteroid 2010 XC15, which could be about 500 feet across. The University of New Mexico Long Wavelength Array near Socorro, New Mexico, and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory Long Wavelength Array near Bishop, California, will receive the reflected signal.
This will be the first use of HAARP and its 3 to probe an asteroid.

* Zenith is the point of the celestial sphere that is directly opposite the nadir** and vertically directly above the observer.

** Nadir, in astronomy, is usually the direction of the local net gravitational force on a stationary object on the surface of a planet. It’s “down” if you define “down” as the direction of the local net gravitational force (including effects planetary rotation), which is generally true in most surface applications. You should note that “nadir” in this context is not the direction to the center of the planet.

In orbit, “nadir” changes it’s meaning. It might be perpendicular to the reference ellipsoid, or in the direction to the center of the planet. Make sure you know which you are using if you’re controlling a spacecraft or a ballistic or a hypersonic missile.