Earthquake energy. Children's mistakes of modern seismologists.

Jan 27, 2020
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I'd direct your attention, Miner, to the closing paragraph of the above geological article:

"We do not reject the theory of Magnetoplasticity, this idea of Mr. Buchachenko deserves the highest marks, but in explaining the source of earthquakes and the process of prevention of underground shocks it will not work. Although, staking on the magnetic field, the scientist came close to solving the
phenomenon of sudden movement of rock blocks - the source of earthquakes is an elementary
charge that creates a magnetic field."

The article, while rejecting Reid's original theory, it also recognizes that Mr Buchachenko's introduction of magnetoplasticity is not the answer either.

Gerhard Kostorz and Peter Mullner, in their article "Magnetoplasticity" in Zeitschrift für Metallkunde 96(7) state:

Magnetocrystalline anisotropy and twinned microstructure are at the origin of the appreciable magnetic-field-induced strains found in some ferromagnetic thermoelastic martensites. The change of magnetization across the twinning plane leads to a force on the twinning dislocations when a magnetic field is applied. The sensitivity of this basic microscopic mechanism not only to crystallographic and magnetic properties of the material, but also to microstructural details, leads to a large variance in the macroscopically attainable magnetic-field-induced strains, while the maximum strain is fixed for any given martensite structure. The magnetic-field-induced deformation of Ni -Mn-Ga single crystals was studied in uniaxial ("static") and rotating ("dynamic") magnetic fields. The spatial and orientational distribution of martensite domains, twin thickness and mutual interactions between twinning dislocations all contribute to the macroscopic result.

See: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/40622986_Magnetoplasticity

Y.D. Wang, in his article "Direct evidence on magnetic-field-induced phase transition in a NiCoMnIn Inferromagnetic shape memory alloy under a stress field", states:

The magnetoelasticity and magnetoplasticity behaviors of a Ni–Co–Mn–In ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) induced by the reverse phase transformation interplayed under multiple (temperature, magnetic, and stress) fields were captured directly by high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction technique. The experiments showed the direct experimental evidence of that a stress (∼50MPa)(∼50MPa) applied to this material made a complete recovery of the original orientations of the martensite variants, showing a full shape memory effect. This finding offers the in-depth understanding the fundamental properties and applications of the Ni–Co–Mn–In FSMA with the magnetic-field-induced reverse transformation.


V. I. Alshits, E. V. Darinskaya, M. V. Koldaeva, and E. A. Petrzhik further elucidate ideas on magnetoplasticity in their paper "Magnetoplastic Effect: Basic Properties and Physical
Mechanisms":

The magnetoplastic effect was originally discovered
by our research group in 1985. This effect manifested
itself as relaxation of the dislocation structure in NaCl
crystals exposed to a constant magnetic field in the
absence of mechanical loading. It was found that
freshly introduced dislocations in samples subjected to
magnetic treatment at B= 0.2–0.5 T for several minutes
moved over distances of tens and hundreds of microns.
The first response of the authors to this incidental
observation was quite natural: “it is impossible.” How-
ever, all attempts to “disprove” ourselves, to find a
methodical error, and to elucidate the origin of the arte-
fact led only to the accumulation of new well-reproduc-
ible regularities. As a result, within more than a year
after the first observation, we prepared our first paper
on this effect. At that time, we did not have a clear
idea of the physical mechanism of the phenomenon but
were already strongly convinced that this is not artefact.

Within only a few years, we were led to the infer-
ence regarding the specific nature of the magnetoplastic
effect. In this effect, the role played by the
magnetic field is reduced not to an additional force
action on dislocations that promotes their thermally
activated depinning from local obstacles but to the
breaking of local barriers due to specific spin processes
in a dislocation–paramagnetic center system. In a large
number of papers [11–37] published after our first work
[10], we investigated different manifestations of mag-
netically stimulated mobility of individual dislocations
in alkali halide crystals and nonmagnetic metals and
semiconductors. All the obtained data count in favor of
the initial hypothesis, according to which, in the
magnetic field, the spin forbiddenness of a particular
electronic transition in the dislocation–impurity system
is removed with some time. This in turn leads to a con-
siderable decrease in the energy of the dislocation–
impurity interaction and the depinning of the disloca-
tion from the point defect. A further motion of the dis-
location to the next pinning center proceeds in the field
of long-range stresses generated by other dislocations.
Then, the process occurs over and over until the mag-
netic field is switched off or the dislocation appears to
be in a region with low stresses. Therefore, the disloca-
tion motion is associated with the self-organization of
dislocations and results in their more equilibrium distribution.

See: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225224718_Magnetoplastic_Effect_Basic_Properties_and_Physical_Mechanisms

"How tides can trigger earthquakes" from the Earth Institute at Columbia University is interesting:

Years ago, scientists realized that earthquakes along mid-ocean ridges -- those underwater mountain ranges at the edges of the tectonic plates -- are linked with the tides. But nobody could figure out why there's an uptick in tremors during low tides.

"Everyone was sort of stumped, because according to conventional theory, those earthquakes should occur at high tides," explained Christopher Scholz, a seismologist at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.

In a study published today in Nature Communications, he and his colleagues have uncovered the mechanism for this seeming paradox, and it comes down to the magma below the mid-ocean ridges.

"It's the magma chamber breathing, expanding and contracting due to the tides, that's making the faults move," said Scholz, who co-led the study along with Lamont-Doherty graduate student Yen Joe Tan.

Going against the tide

The low tide correlation is surprising because of the way the mid-ocean fault moves. Scholz described the fault as a tilted plane that separates two blocks of earth. During movement, the upper block slides down with respect to the lower one. So, scientists expected that at high tides, when there is more water sitting on top of the fault, it would push the upper block down and cause the earthquakes. But that's not what happens. Instead, the fault slips down during low tide, when forces are actually pulling upwards -- "which is the opposite of what you'd expect," said Scholz.

To get to the bottom the mystery, he, Tan, and Fabien Albino from the University of Bristol studied the Axial Volcano along the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean. Because the volcano erupts every ten years or so, scientists have set up dense networks of ocean bottom instruments to monitor it. The team used the data from those instruments to model and explore different ways the low tides could be causing the tremors.

In the end, it came down to a component that no one else had considered before: the volcano's magma chamber, a soft, pressurized pocket below the surface. The team realized that when the tide is low, there is less water sitting on top of the chamber, so it expands. As it puffs up, it strains the rocks around it, forcing the lower block to slide up the fault, and causing earthquakes in the process.

See: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/06/190607091035.htm

It is interesting to note the above investigations into magnetoplasticity at the molecular level. Then, I've also included a paper on the effects of tides and the intendant water pressure on earthquakes, too. We inhabit a geologically active water world.
Hartmann352
 

miner

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It is interesting to note the above investigations into magnetoplasticity at the molecular level. Then, I've also included a paper on the effects of tides and the intendant water pressure on earthquakes, too. We inhabit a geologically active water world.
Hartmann352
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As the dislocation moves, the potential energy expended by the rock mass to form it will be released. As a result, the magnetoelastic Villari effect and the phenomenon inverse to the Villari effect - the phenomenon of Magnetostriction - will necessarily arise. These two effects will start to rock the massif, compressing and then unclenching it. That is, we get three effects at once connected with induction of magnetic field in the rock massif and by which we can explain well known preceding sudden blowouts, down-hole flaking in mines, rock chunks shooting up the face, noises, the build-up of gassing, crackling, and other similar phenomena; like the rumble of earthquakes, resembling the noise of a tank column or a huge swarm of bees, it will be no different from the hum produced by a powerful transformer, which hums precisely because of compression - stretching of the transformer core
 
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Well now, there is something I can relate to. The piezo electric effect. A mechanical pressure building up a dislocated charge field, which can be triggered and relocated at a very quick rate. Sorta like neutralizing a region of earth, with a physical shock. Reversing an electrical charge. We use all types of piezo materials for transducers between the physical, the mechanical, the electric circuits. Crystals are such and control our frequencies.

Recent research has shown a way to nullify the physical requirement for the length of an efficient antenna with piezo materials. A very long sought for method.

It wouldn't surprise me a bit to find the earth's innards electrified. And dynamically so.
 
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Here's a few interesting articles further elucidating the subjects of magnetoelasticity and magnetostriction:

A MAGNETOELASTIC MODEL FOR VILLARI-EFFECT MAGNETOSTRICTIVE SENSORS

by Marcelo J. Dapino, Ralph C. Smith, Frederick T. Calkins and Alison B. Flatau

A magnetomechanical model for the design and control of Villari-effect magnetostrictive sensors is presented. The model quantifies the magnetization changes that a magnetostrictive material undergoes when subjected to a dc excitation field and variable stresses. The magnetic behavior is characterized by considering the Jiles-Atherton mean field theory for ferromagnetic hysteresis, which is constructed from a thermodynamic balance between the energy available for magnetic moment rotation and the energy lost as domain walls attach to and detach from pinning sites. The effect of stress on magnetization is quantified through a law of approach to the anhysteretic magnetization. Elastic properties of the sensor are incorporated by means of a wave equation that quantifies the strains and stresses arising in response to moment rotations. This yields a nonlinear PDE system for the strains, stresses and magnetization state of a magnetostrictive transducer as it drives or is driven by external loads. Because the model addresses the magnetoelastic coupling, it is applicable to both magnetostrictive sensors and actuators. Properties of the model and approximation method are illustrated by comparison with experimental data collected from a Terfenol-D sensor.

See:https://www.academia.edu/18883311/A_magnetoelastic_model_for_Villari_effect_magnetostrictive_sensors?auto=download

Magnetoelastic effects

- Isotropic effect : volume magnetostriction
- When the magnetic ordering is produced by an applied field, they are called forced
magnetostriction.
- On a smaller scale, the volume expansion can show an anisotropy for T < Tc, that is, the linear strain is different in different directions relative to the direction of magnetization.
- The magnetization vector M is associated with a stress which causes a mechanical deformation of the material.

Screen Shot 2022-06-20 at 8.57.07 PM.png
page1image4135047920

Joule (or Anisotropic) Magnetostriction, λ = △l/l
The anisotropic strain associated with the direction of magnetization was first observed in iron by Joule on 1842 yr. - Field dependence of anisotropic strain (see Fig. 7.2 in O’Handley) for strain measured parallel to the field, e// = (△l/l)//
perpendicular to the field, e = (△l/l)⊥ - λ ranging from zero (< 10-7)
to nearly ± 10-4 in 3d metals and alloys to over 10-3 in some 4f metals, intermetallic compounds, and alloys.

▶ Two Ways in describing Anisotropic Magnetostriction
- Saturation magnetostriction, λs :
the strain produced at magnetic saturation
- Magnetoelastic coupling coefficient, Bij : the magnetic stress causing λs
▶ The Magnetic Stress Tensor,
called Magnetoelastic Coupling CoefficientBij - The components Bij, can be related to its
magnetostrictive strains by a analogy with Hooke's law:
Bij ∝ − cijklλkl
For Ni, B1 = 6.2MPa, Young's modulus, E = 200GPA,
λ = 30×10-6


page2image4217778272

▶ The Inverse Effect
- Stressing or straining a magnetic material
→ a change in its preferred magnetization direction can be produced. (see Fig. 7.3 in O'Handley):
inverse Joule effects, Villari effects, piezomagnetism, or stress-induced anisotropy.
- If λs > 0, it is easier to magnetize a material
in the tensile stress (σ > 0) direction.
- It is harder to magnetize a material in a direction
for which λs < 0 and σ > 0 or for which λs > 0 and σ < 0.
▶ Torsional Effects
- A current passing through a magnetic material
in the direction of M causes a twisting of the magnetization around the current axis.
- If λs ≠ 0, a torsional motion of the sample occurs: Wiedemann effect.
- Inverse Wiedemann effect, named after Matteucci: a mechanical twisting of the sample causes a voltage to appear along the sample length, consistent with Faraday's law and the strain-induced magnetization change.
- The existence of anisotropic magnetoelastic(ME) effects → the existence of a coupling between the magnetization direction and mechanical strains.

page3image4218699344

ΔE Effect and Thermodynamics of Magnetomechanical Coupling ▶ △E Effect
- Effect of added magnetic strain due to the magnetostrictive strain, which is important for acoustic waves, vibrations, and damping.
-The total strain etot of a ferromagnetic sample under stress σ
etot = σ/EM + (3/2)λs[cos2θ ― 1/3]
where EM is Young's modulus for fixed M
(no magnetic contribution) and θ is the angle between M and the strain measuring direction.

page14image4216494704
See: https://ocw.snu.ac.kr/sites/default/files/NOTE/Lecture #7.pdf

Magnetostriction is a phenomenon observed in all ferromagnetic materials. It couples elastic, electric, magnetic and in some situations also thermal fields and is of great industrial interest for use in sensors, actuators, adaptive or functional structures, robotics, transducers and MEMS.

A magnetostrictive material develops large mechanical deformations when subjected to an external magnetic field. This phenomenon is attributed to the rotations of small magnetic domains in the material, which are randomly oriented when the material is not exposed to a magnetic field. The orientation of these small domains by the imposition of the magnetic field creates a strain field. As the intensity of the magnetic field is increased, more and more magnetic domains orientate themselves so that their principal axes of anisotropy are collinear with the magnetic field in each region and finally saturation is achieved.

Screen Shot 2022-06-20 at 9.19.35 PM.png

Magnetostriction or Joule magnetostriction is a consequence of the magnetoelastic coupling. It pertains to the strain produced along the field direction and is the most commonly used magnetostrictive effect.

Joule magnetostriction is the coupling between the magnetic and elastic regimes in a magnetostrictive material. Magnetostriction is an intrinsic property of magnetic materials.

Screen Shot 2022-06-20 at 9.23.47 PM.png

See: http://magnetism.eu/esm/2007-cluj/questions/magnetostriction.pdf

The magnetoelastic and the magnetostrictive effects, or piezomagnetic properties, of rock and metal under stress have been widely discussed and experimentally observed in the laboratory. The results of these investigations indicate that a change in the sub-surface stress should manifest itself as a change in the susceptibility and remanent magnetization of rock and therefore in the local geomagnetic field. Wilson (Wilson, E., Proc. Roy. Soc., A, 101, 445 (1922) described the laboratory observations of these effects with the suggestion that they be used to observe actual deformation of the Earth's surface.

However, direct observation of these effects under conditions such as those involving active fault stress and earthquakes, however, have never been clearly reported.
Hartmann352
 
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Those graphs are eerily similar to electrical characteristics of our electronic devices. Too bad we don't have a fundamental structure that accommodates these material mechanical, and electronic properties.

We have plenty of equations on both sides. A common narrative would be discernment.
 

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In my early search for the source of energy of underground shocks, I pinned great hopes on the effects associated with the magnetic field: the Villari effect, magnetostriction, magnetoplasticity, and the piezo effect. Many times, being at great depths in the mines, I observed how, when rock pressure changed, the magnetic effects began to rock the mine workings: the mining face was shooting lumps of rock, there was a sharp increase in gas emission from the massif, there was noise, rumble, tapping in the depth of the mining face. But over time I became convinced that these effects are a consequence of appearance of the elementary charge in the rock mass and induction of electromagnetic field in the rock mass. This has always happened when the rock pressure changed sharply as a result of mining operations, that is, areas with different pressures appeared, which led to the appearance of the charge, which induced an electromagnetic field! Then I realized that it is the ELEMENTARY CHARGE that is the source of earthquakes. That's where you gentlemen need to dig, dig, and dig!
My friend and I attempted to build a piezosensor to detect the early onset of magnetic effects in order to prevent sudden releases in mines, but didn't have the intelligence to finish the work in this area. We were stuck.
 

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https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225224718_Magnetoplastic_Effect_Basic_Properties_and_Physical_Mechanisms

"How tides can trigger earthquakes" from the Earth Institute at Columbia University is interesting:

Years ago, scientists realized that earthquakes along mid-ocean ridges -- those underwater mountain ranges at the edges of the tectonic plates -- are linked with the tides. But nobody could figure out why there's an uptick in tremors during low tides.

"Everyone was sort of stumped, because according to conventional theory, those earthquakes should occur at high tides," explained Christopher Scholz, a seismologist at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.

In a study published today in Nature Communications, he and his colleagues have uncovered the mechanism for this seeming paradox, and it comes down to the magma below the mid-ocean ridges.

"It's the magma chamber breathing, expanding and contracting due to the tides, that's making the faults move," said Scholz, who co-led the study along with Lamont-Doherty graduate student Yen Joe Tan.

In fact, they are wrong, the mechanism of tidal earthquakes works on a different principle, which is that as the ocean level changes, the rock pressure in the massif rocks changes. When the pressure changes, the rock mass produces a charge caused by the change in pressure, an electromagnetic field emerges, which serves as a source of earthquake energy. This was clearly demonstrated by the Koyna Dam in India. When the level of the mirror in the basin changed, earthquakes occurred, and when the water level was stable, the earthquakes stopped. As for the magma chamber, the magma itself creates high pressure, which does not allow the water level to play any noticeable role in seismic processes. To understand this process, read the previous topic - Where does the energy of earthquakes come from????
 
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Miner - You may be interested in the following article:

Electrical conductivity of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system
February 13, 2021

Electromagnetic geophysical methods image the electrical conductivity of the subsurface. Electrical conductivity is an intrinsic material property that is sensitive to temperature, composition, porosity, volatile and/or melt content, and other physical properties relevant to the solid Earth. Therefore, imaging the electrical structure of the crust and mantle yields valuable information on the physical and chemical state of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system.

Here we explore the viability of the passive magnetotelluric (MT) method for constraining upper mantle properties. We approach this problem in four successive steps: 1) review the electrical conductivity behavior of relevant materials; 2) predict the bulk electrical conductivity structure of oceanic and continental lithosphere for a suite of representative physical states; 3) generate synthetic MT data from the conductivity predictions; 4) compare and discuss the conductivity predictions and the synthetic data with select case studies from oceanic and continental settings. Our aim is to clarify the uncertainties associated with drawing inferences from electrical conductivity observations and ultimately to provide a basis for assigning confidence levels to interpretations.

Citation Information:

Publication Year2021
TitleElectrical conductivity of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system
DOI10.1016/j.pepi.2021.106661
AuthorsSamer Naif, Kate Selway, Benjamin Scott Murphy, Gary D. Egbert, Anne Pommier
Publication TypeArticle
Publication SubtypeJournal Article
Series TitlePhysics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors

See: https://www.usgs.gov/publications/electrical-conductivity-lithosphere-asthenosphere-system
 

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