cosmic tunnel?

Aug 27, 2020
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Dear all,

I've heard research suggests the Earth is travelling in an 'enormous cosmic tunnel'.

Over thirty years ago I tried to express an interconnectedness between galaxies using only paint and feelings.

I called the painting Nodes of Creation i.e. were 'tunnels ' met and galaxies formed.

It's only and idea expressed on a canvas .....

Marj

[ housewife - common or garden variety]
 
Jan 27, 2020
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Thank-you, Marjorie, for suggesting this interesting topic. Let me flesh it out a bit...

Earth in a tunnel? Decades-old mystery unfolds
Sky Earth blogspot
October 18, 2021

radio-tunnel-.jpeg

Earth in a tunnel would mean a tunnel-like structure in our sky. We could see it, these astronomers said, if our eyes were tuned to the “light” of radio waves. The Van-Gogh-like lines here show the orientation of the tunnel-like structure’s magnetic field. Notice the bright star in the center of the image. That star is Vega in the constellation Lyra the Harp, which marks the solar apex, or direction of the sun’s motion through the Milky Way galaxy. Image via Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory/ Villa Elisa telescope/ ESA/ Planck Collaboration/ Stellarium/ J. West./ University of Toronto.

An astronomer at the Dunlap Institute at the University of Toronto said on October 14, 2021, that our solar system may be surrounded by what she describes as a magnetic tunnel, visible in radio waves. Jennifer West is an expert in magnetism in galaxies and the interstellar medium, that is, the material that fills the space between the stars. She is making a scientific case for the existence of this tunnel. West and her team believe that two known structures – seen on opposite sides of Earth’s sky and previously considered to be separate – are instead connected as a tunnel. She described the tunnel as “rope-like filaments” some 1,000 light-years long. West said:

"If we were to look up in the sky, we would see this tunnel-like structure in just about every direction we looked – that is, if we had eyes that could see radio light."

West and her colleagues are able to study this magnetic tunnel surrounding us in space because they’re using telescopes and other instruments that see in the radio part of the electromagnetic spectrum. On one side of Earth’s sky, they see the North Polar Spur of our Milky Way galaxy. That’s a ridge of gas sticking out at an angle to the star-rich plane of our galaxy. Last spring, Monica Young at Skyandtelescope.com described one way of looking at the Milky Way’s North Polar Spur. She said astronomers were proposing it as part of what they call the Local Bubble around our solar system, a cavity in space some 300 light-years across.

The Local Bubble contains the stars nearest to our sun and is thought to have been blown out long ago by supernova explosions. Maybe the North Polar Spur and the Local Bubble are connected, and maybe West’s view of a tunnel-like structure in this same region of the galaxy – our region, our neighborhood of space – is also connected somehow.

On the opposite side of Earth’s sky, astronomers also see a part of the galaxy they call the Fan Region. It’s not as well studied, but astronomers look toward it because it’s bright in the polarized radio sky. In West’s view, the Fan Region is part of the tunnel-like structure around our solar system, too.

West and her team published the data results of the study in the peer-reviewed Astrophysical Journal (see below).

radio-tunnel-what-.jpeg
This illustration shows the same part of the sky as in the illustration at top. See the bright star Vega near the center? Our sun moves toward Vega in its journey around the center of our Milky Way galaxy. Image via Stellarium/ J. West/ University of Toronto.

Astronomers have known about the North Polar Spur and the Fan Region since the 1960s. But most scientific explanations have focused on them – and still do focus on them – individually. West and her colleagues are proposing something entirely new. They believe they’re the first astronomers to connect these two opposing sides of the sky as a unit.

West and team see these regions – which consist of charged particles and a magnetic field – as being shaped like great cosmic ropes about 1,000 light-years long. West explained:

"That’s the equivalent distance of travelling between Toronto and Vancouver two trillion times."

A statement from the Dunlap Institute said that West has been thinking about these features on and off for 15 years, since she first saw a map of the radio sky. Dunlap explained:

"More recently, she built a computer model that calculated what the radio sky would look like from Earth, as she varied the shape and location of the long ropes. This model allowed West to ‘build’ the structure around us [on a computer], and showed her what the sky would look like through our telescopes. It was this new perspective that helped her to match the model to the data."

Jennifer-West-University-of-Toronto.jpeg
Dr. Jennifer West, Research Associate at the Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto. Image via Jennifer West/ University of Toronto.

West said:

"A few years ago, one of our co-authors, Tom Landecker, told me about a paper from 1965, from the early days of radio astronomy. Based on the crude data available at this time, the authors (Mathewson & Milne*), speculated that these polarized radio signals could arise from our view of the Local Arm of the galaxy, from inside it.

That paper inspired me to develop this idea and tie my model to the vastly better data that our telescopes give us today."

To explain it further, West uses the Earth’s map as an example:

"The north pole is on the top and the equator is through the middle. But, of course, we can always re-draw that map with a different perspective. The same is true for the map of our galaxy. Most astronomers look at a map with the north pole of the galaxy up and the galactic center in the middle. An important part that inspired this idea was to remake that map with a different point in the middle."

Milky-Way-diagram-and-insert.jpeg
Illustrated map of our Milky Way galaxy shown with the position and size of proposed filaments. Inset shows a more detailed view of the local environments, and the position of the Local Bubble and various nearby dust clouds. Image via University of Toronto.

West said she looks forward to the next possible discoveries within this research. She said:

"Magnetic fields don’t exist in isolation. They all must to connect to each other. So a next step is to better understand how this local magnetic field connects both to the larger-scale galactic magnetic field, and also to the smaller scale magnetic fields of our sun and Earth."

In the meantime, West agrees that her new model – depicting a magnetic tunnel surrounding our solar system – brings new insight to the science community. And it’s also a ground-breaking concept for the rest of us. She commented:

"I think it’s just awesome to imagine that these structures are everywhere, whenever we look up into the night sky."

Tunnel-University-of-Toronto.jpeg
A curving tunnel, with lines formed by the tunnel lights and road lane markers, illustrating how these lines appear to converge in the distance. This is a similar geometry to the model. Arrows included to aid the eye. Image via Pixabay/wal_172619/ J. West/ University of Toronto.

All-sky-image-in-radio-waves.jpeg
The Milky Way galaxy seen in radio waves in the conventional view with the galactic center in the middle of the image. Image via Haslam et al. (1982) with annotations by J. West/ University of Toronto.

Bottom line: A new model from astronomers at Dunlap Institute at the University of Toronto connects local structures in our neighborhood of the Milky Way and depicts Earth in a tunnel in space.

See:
A Unified Model for the Fan Region and the North Polar Spur: A bundle of filaments in the Local Galaxy
by J. L. West ,1 T. L. Landecker ,2 B. M. Gaensler ,1,3 T. Jaffe ,4 and A. S. Hill 5,2

1Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4, Canada
2National Research Council Canada, Herzberg Research Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, PO Box 248, Penticton, V2A 6J9, Canada
3David A. Dunlap Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4, Canada 4NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
5Department of Computer Science, Math, Physics, and Statistics, Irving K. Barber School of Science, University of British Columbia,
Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Canada
(Received June 2021; Accepted October 1, 2021)
Submitted to AstroPhysical Journal

See: https://arxiv.org/pdf/2109.14720.pdf

* A LINEAR POLARIZATION SURVEY OF THE SOUTHERN SKY AT 408MCjS
By D. S. MATHEWSON* and D. K. MILNE* ( https://www.publish.csiro.au/ph/pdf/PH650635 )

As Dr. Jennifer West explains, "Magnetic fields don’t exist in isolation. They all must to connect to each other." And it appears that our interconnectedness seems to grow with each discovery.

I wonder if this vast magnetic tunnel in space in which we are traveling is somehow related to the rotation of the galaxies in huge filaments that connect the cosmic web?

Afterall, Noam Libeskind, initiator of the project at the AIP, has said that, "Despite being thin cylinders—similar in dimension to pencils—hundreds of millions of light years long, but just a few million light years in diameter, these fantastic tendrils of matter rotate. On these scales, the galaxies within them are themselves just specks of dust. They move on helixes, or corkscrew-like orbits, circling around the middle of the filament while traveling along it. Such a spin has never been seen before on such enormous scales, and the implication is that there must be an as-yet unknown physical mechanism responsible for torquing these objects."

I now wonder if the if the spin is caused by the same process which Dr. West has found in our area of the Milky Way?

See my article and work:
Largest structures in the universe show clear light-shifted signal of rotation
 
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Mar 4, 2020
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One needs to be very careful when listening to explanations, of measurements, of outer space. When we observe and measure events on earth, all the objects and energies of the event, have the same time stamp and therefore interact together in our frame of mind.

But objects and radio waves out in space, have different time stamps. Therefore, the act of space objects working together.........is an illusion.

It comes from observing things here on earth. Everything on earth, works at the same time. But not space objects.......even though we see them at the same time......they are not there at the same time.

We can only see where a star use to be. We can not see where the star is now.
 
Mar 11, 2022
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Dear all,

I've heard research suggests the Earth is travelling in an 'enormous cosmic tunnel'.

Over thirty years ago I tried to express an interconnectedness between galaxies using only paint and feelings.

I called the paint for upcycling furniture UK of Creation i.e. were 'tunnels ' met and galaxies formed.

It's only and idea expressed on a canvas .....

Marj

[ housewife - common or garden variety]
The tunnel is just part of the milky-way, and that portion is moving along with us, so it's less about traveling through a tunnel, but more of an elongated cylinder that is moving with us. We've already known there exist these massive structures in the sky that are made of hydrogen interstellar ionized which are aligned with magnetic fields, we now believe that these forms represent a bigger structure is inside us. It's more like the last donut bite and we're sure there are similar patterns within our own galaxy. We've seen huge magnetic shapes in galaxies elsewhere it's just difficult to discern ours due to our viewpoint.
 
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Jan 27, 2020
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Ms. Alworth -
Dear all,

I've heard research suggests the Earth is travelling in an 'enormous cosmic tunnel'.

Over thirty years ago I tried to express an interconnectedness between galaxies using only paint and feelings.

I called the painting Nodes of Creation i.e. were 'tunnels ' met and galaxies formed.

It's only and idea expressed on a canvas .....

Marj

[ housewife - common or garden variety]

Ms. Alworth -

Is there a way you could post a photo or a facsimile of your art?
As a person interested in art, it would be nice to view.
If you are reluctant to post something so personal on such a large site, I understand.

Hartmann352
 
Mar 19, 2022
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Ugh! Why is it so damned hard for modern day astronomers to just say "electricity"?? o_O

The above posts all describe the behavior of magnetic fields very well, actually, but do not mention the electric fields that must sustain them. They do not, cannot, exist in isolation from one another!

Everything above points to the flow of charge from regions of high electrical charge to regions of lower electrical charge. It's just that simple. *EVERYTHING* works this way in our Universe. It is just the nature of matter!

Before astronomers had the technology to see the "tunnels" through the Universe, which at a greater distance they call "filaments", they could not perceive how matter in the Universe could be connected. Now we can see the hydrogen clouds and the "dust" lanes that form from them when electromagnetic forces pull the hydrogen into plasma formations that were named after the person who first conceived of them: Birkelund currents. It is disingenious to call them anything else, because they have already been perceived a century ago-credit where it's due, for Earth's sake!

After spending a lifetime in electronics, it astounds me still to see the reluctance in modern astronomy to calling apples, apples. People seem to think that because they see something happening in space, they can rename it, even though it has been named, studied, commercially used for over a century, and is running through the machinery they are using to look at the events in space they're trying to rename!

Sigh-forgive me, please. So much frustration here. As I said-I've worked with the laws of charge in motion through matter, or what we call "electricity", for decades. I see the electrical effects in space within the wondrous images that return to us from the amazing equipment that engineers have built and provided for astronomers (using electricity!) and then hear these same astronomers turn around and call those engineers "pseudo-scientists" because they explain those same images with the understanding of electrodynamics that allowed the images to be taken and shown in the first place!

It just gets old. Forgive me. I just thought it would be pertinent to mention for the sake of better understanding that all the magnetic effects mentioned above occur the way they do because of the way that the vibration of particles of matter that we call "charge" form cellular structures in space, but those cellular structures will break down after a certain point and release that charge to flow towards areas of lesser charge, and that that flow of charge, which we call "electricity", is what creates ALL magnetic fields in ALL matter!

Old ideas that magnetic fields can be "frozen in" to matter have been proven to be incorrect time and time and time again, yet because no one has changed the information in the textbooks that astronomers and astrophysicists have been studying, there seems to be a penchant for mentioning the factually incorrect information over and over again, and this seems (at least to me) to be the reason why certain folks can avoid mentioning the absolutely fundamental role that the flow of charge-electricity-plays in our cosmos.

For the really stubborn, let me leave you with this: if you understand how physical matter behaves electrically between subatomic particles, between atoms, and between molecules, how can you not therefore accept how electricity then behaves between very, very large groups of molecules?? Do you honestly think that the scale of the problem changes the physics of it??

Electricity behaves the same way over 39 orders of magnitude in the visible universe, so is it any surprise to learn from Coulomb's Law that:
"The electric force may seem like a small number, but keep in mind that the electron doesn't have much mass. The electric force is sufficient to keep the electron in "orbit" around the proton in the hydrogen atom. At 39 orders of magnitude smaller, the gravitational force might as well be zero. Gravity does not do anything to keep a hydrogen atom together. "
(The Physics Hypertextbook, Glenn Elert, physics.info, Coulomb, Practice)

If the astronomers of antiquity could've seen the physical 'wires' of the universe the way we do today, they would've turned to James Maxwell and Nikolai Tesla to help them explain what they saw. They would've seen the plasma filaments we call Birkelund currents between galaxies, with stars held by Marklund convection "like beads on a string". The Catholic priest Father LeMaitre might not have ever released his 'Big Bang' theory to the public, and the Christian Albert Einstein wouldn't have then sealed the idea as gospel by picking up that 'science-meets-Creation' concept and running with it. The rotation of galaxies, easily explainable as the behavior of a homopolar motor rotating by Lorentz force due to the electrical current flowing throw its axis, would never have needed a 'dark matter' theory to explain why the galaxies do not fling themselves apart.

You see? It's not all about the observation-it's all in the explanation.

If you had never, ever heard about dark matter, dark energy, the 'Big Bang', pulsars, and whatnot, and two persons came before you and explained to you what you saw: one with the explanations of "dark" everything and neutrons that behaved differently in star matter than they do in laboratory matter, and the other person came before you and showed you laboratory experiments outlining the behavior of matter that was consistent with what you saw in space...who would you believe? o_O

Again, sorry for all this-it's early and I haven't had my coffee. >.<

Peace, and remember to love your Mother! ☮💝🌎
 
Jan 27, 2020
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In a Birkeland current, each particle follows the magnetic field which is present at its particular location. The movement of charged particles in these magnetic fields, also results in the particle creating its own magnetic field.

The further away a particle is from the central axis – the more circular its path. The helical rotation outward from the axial current creates further electromagnetic forces that contribute to the stability of the Birkeland Current. Birkeland Currents almost always occur in pairs. Currents that often spiral and twist around each other.

Their interaction is governed by Ampère’s force law. Two axial currents that are moving in the same direction will attract each other if they are parallel. This attractive force is inversely proportional to their distance apart. Birkeland Currents create a long-range attractive force from the axial currents, but a short-range repulsive one from the radial spiralling currents between filaments.

birkeland-currents-1.jpeg
The twisted pairs that exist in space create a field-aligned current flow that follows the magnetic field.

Electromagnetic disturbances (geomagnetic storms) are observed when bright aurorae are seen. In 1903, Birkeland’s Arctic expedition found electric currents from the Aurora Borealis flowing parallel to the auroral formation. Because those electric currents must flow in a circuit, and the auroral glow appeared to result from events in space, he proposed that they flowed down from space at one end of the auroral arc and back out to space at the other.

In 1973, when the magnetometer onboard the U.S. Navy satellite Triad found two gigantic electric current sheets carrying a million amperes or more, one descending from the aurora’s morning side and the other ascending from the evening side, they were named “Birkeland currents,” since it was his research that predicted them.

Birkeland’s polar electric currents are known today as “auroral electrojets” and are connected to electric currents that follow Earth’s geomagnetic field into and away from the Arctic region. They have been called a “new” discovery by NASA scientists who continue to ignore Birkeland’s work. The words “plasma” and “currents” are often used in NASA press releases, but they are usually paired with “impacts,” “collisions,” and “streams.”

Birkeland revealed that electric currents travel along filaments that are constrained by magnetic fields. His experiment confirmed that parallel linear currents experience a long-range attractive force that is orders of magnitude greater than gravity. As plasma filaments get closer together, however, they do not coalesce, they rotate around each other in a helix. A short-range magnetic repulsion occurs, preventing them from “shorting out.” Instead, they remain isolated from each other.

The closer that electric filaments (Birkeland currents) get to one another, the faster they spin. The pairs of “transmission lines” become a twisted electrical tornado, or plasma vortex, that scales by several orders of magnitude. The twisted pairs that exist in space create a field-aligned current flow that follows the magnetic field, permitting electric power to travel vast distances.

Glowing, braided filaments are sometimes visible in “jets” that blast out from stars and some galaxies. Those filaments are called Birkeland currents, and they are the visible portion of enormous electric circuits that form a large-scale structure in the Universe. The circuits generate magnetic fields that can be mapped, so the helical shape characteristic of Birkeland currents is known, since it can be seen.

birkeland-currents-12.jpeg
The polar “circuit” is composed of concentric cylinders of parallel Birkeland current filaments.

This beautiful example of a “planetary nebula” shows the classic features of a plasma z-pinch. The current density in the Birkeland current filaments is sufficient to cause the plasma to enter “glow mode.” The polar “circuit” is composed of concentric cylinders of parallel Birkeland current filaments. The polar double layers are regions of high electric field and radio “noise.” The cylinders pinch down at the star in the characteristic hourglass shape.

Glowing, braided filaments are sometimes visible in “jets” that blast out from stars and some galaxies. Those filaments are called Birkeland currents, and they are the visible portion of enormous electric circuits that form a large-scale structure in the Universe. The circuits generate magnetic fields that can be mapped, so the helical shape characteristic of Birkeland currents is known, since it can be seen.


Screen Shot 2022-03-20 at 8.18.01 PM.png
Electrons moving along a Birkeland current may be accelerated by a plasma double layer.

Birkeland currents are also one of a class of plasma phenomena called a z-pinch, so named because the azimuthal magnetic fields produced by the current pinches the current into a filamentary cable. This can also twist, producing a helical pinch that spirals like a twisted or braided rope, and this most closely corresponds to a Birkeland current. Pairs of parallel Birkeland currents will also interact due to Ampère’s force law: parallel Birkeland currents moving in the same direction will attract each other with an electromagnetic force inversely proportional to their distance apart whilst parallel Birkeland currents moving in opposite directions will repel each other. There is also a short-range circular component to the force between two Birkeland currents that is opposite to the longer-range parallel forces.

Electrons moving along a Birkeland current may be accelerated by a plasma double layer. If the resulting electrons approach relativistic velocities (i.e. if they approach the speed of light) they may subsequently produce a Bennett pinch, which in a magnetic field causes the electrons to spiral and emit synchrotron radiation that may include radio, optical (i.e. visible light), x-rays, and gamma rays.

When plasma moves through a dust or gas, the cloud becomes ionized and electric currents flow. The currents generate magnetic fields that confine themselves into coherent filaments known as Birkeland currents. Birkeland currents squeeze galactic plasma into thin filaments that remain collimated over great distances. Astronomical observations reveal that the material from some galactic jets travels more than 30,000 light-years.

The charged particles that compose the currents spiral along the magnetic fields, appearing as electrical vortices. Surprisingly, Felix Aharonian of the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies suggested that “… there could be a ‘tube’ of magnetic field lines extending between the source and our solar system, funnelling the cosmic rays towards us.”

Gases obey Newtonian laws of kinetic motion with molecules bumping into each other or accelerated by “shock waves” imparted by other particles. Plasma, on the other hand, behaves according to the laws of electricity. Stars are born within twisting Birkeland currents that flow around a circuit through the galaxy. The z-pinch effect squeezes plasma inside those filaments, igniting stars and forming toroids of electricity around stellar equators.

It was Dr. Alex Dessler in 1967 who discovered the electric currents in space that Birkeland had predicted. He suggested that the transverse magnetic field components found in the Earth’s magnetosphere and auroras indicated electric currents essentially parallel to the magnetic field lines. Dessler called them ‘Birkeland currents,’ a term which is now generally accepted and sometimes generalized to mean all currents flowing parallel to the ambient magnetic field.

birkeland-currents-10.jpeg

The long-range (1/r) electromagnetic interaction between pairs of intergalactic current filaments, known as “Birkeland currents,” attracts matter from a vast volume of space. Where two filaments intersect, they form a spiral galaxy through the powerful electromagnetic “Z-pinch” effect. This concept has been tested in the lab and by ‘particle-in-cell’ supercomputer simulations. It shows that the extremely weak and limited-range (1/r2) force of gravity has negligible effect in forming a spiral galaxy. It requires no dark matter or MOND!

Formation of the Milky Way galaxy in a cosmic Z-pinch offers a simple explanation for the discovery of satellite galaxies rotating in the same sense in the plane of the Milky Way galaxy.

The immense scalability of plasma phenomena allows us to use the dramatic example of the effects of a plasma Z-pinch on a stellar scale in supernova 1987A to explain what happens on a galactic scale. The Milky Way is formed in the central plasma column of the Z-pinch. Surrounding the Milky Way axially are a number of interacting plasma filaments arranged in concentric cylinders that have the potential to produce satellite galaxies. The number of filaments follows a characteristic pattern that suggests they will not be found “in hundreds.” Peratt writes:
“Because the electrical current-carrying filaments are parallel, they attract via the Biot-Savart force law, in pairs but sometimes three. This reduces the 56 filaments over time to 28 filaments, hence the 56 and 28 fold symmetry patterns. In actuality, during the pairing, any number of filaments less than 56 may be recorded as pairing is not synchronized to occur uniformly. However, there are ‘temporarily stable’ (longer state) durations at 42, 35, 28, 14, 7, and 4 filaments. Each pair formation is a vortex that becomes increasingly complex.”

The rotating “vortexes” of the Milky Way and its satellites are driven electrically and will be in the same sense and roughly coplanar.

In the Electric Universe (EU) model, twisting streams of electrons and ions form filaments that span vast regions of space. Where pairs of these spaghetti like structures interact, the particles gain energy and, at narrow pinch regions (called z-pinches), produce the entire range of galaxy types as well as the full spectrum of cosmic electromagnetic radiation.

… Any time charges are accelerated (as they are in the case of a Birkeland current) “synchrotron” electro-magnetic radiation at various frequencies occurs – typically from microwaves through hard x-rays. Thus, a Birkeland current performs a scavenging effect, gathering and concentrating whatever (neutral or ionized) elements it passes near. The result is analogous to a cosmic coaxial cable transmission line.

See: https://www.everythingselectric.com/birkeland-currents/

See: https://www.plasma-universe.com/Birkeland-current/

See: https://www.universeofparticles.com/2018/07/09/the-twist-of-the-birkeland-current/

The above, on Birkeland currents, is the basis of the "electric universe" EU theory. It is an interesting and compelling read, which takes the reader from Earth's aurora borealis to extra-galactic jets.
Hartmann352
 

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