Cosmic strings from the Big Bang may have left behind ripples in space-time

Jan 6, 2020
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It is a ribbon - comprised of many of these 'strings' - that holds up the earth into its position. These strings are being cut one by one. What will happen when they are all cut I wonder?
 
Dec 3, 2019
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It is a ribbon - comprised of many of these 'strings' - that holds up the earth into its position. These strings are being cut one by one. What will happen when they are all cut I wonder?
It is a ribbon - comprised of many of these 'strings' - that holds up the earth into its position. These strings are being cut one by one. What will happen when they are all cut I wonder?
Seems to me these strings you're talking of are not supporting your brain any longer.
 
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Jan 3, 2020
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A new study may help answer one of the universe's biggest mysteries.
This is an unlikely toy theory, though since it is testable they should go for the test.

Why it is unlikely is triple fold. 1. It relies on a supersymmetry, string based hypothesis, which is problematic since neither LHC nor ACME see a natural particle energy range supersymmetry just above the standard model energy range. "The existence of right-handed neutrinos is further natural when the standard model gauge groups are unified into an SO(10) grand unified theory. Here and below, whenever we refer to the seesaw mechanism, it is meant to be a type-I seesaw together with thermal leptogenesis." . 2. One of the advantaged of staying away from GUT theory is that it removes its unobserved generic proton decay. 3. One of the advantages of inflation is that it dilutes unobserved spatial topological defects such as cosmological strings.
 
Jan 3, 2020
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No he didn't. It's a matter of perspective and therefore opinion.
Yes, in a manner of speaking, since it depends on your definition of "big bang" [ https://profmattstrassler.com/2014/03/26/which-parts-of-the-big-bang-theory-are-reliable/ ]. That illustration is old, and inappropriate to the article science (see * below).

However, the new generation of cosmologists, who are raised with inflation being well tested (dark energy observed 1998, cosmic background spectra 2003), seem to converge on big bang as the expansion with a low Hubble expansion rate comparable with the current rate [according to both Matt Dowd@PBS Space & Time and Paul Sutter@Space.com]. They can then say that the release of the inflation field potential energy drives the big bang expansion, 'puts the bang in the big bang' [
View: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xJCX2NlhdTc
].

For a different perspective of just a Hot Big Bang era, but still giving the correct physics (wait for the retake on inflation at the end!), an inspiring "I described it 'rong before, but now I know better" popularization: "The Big Bang is probably not what you think it is".
View: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P1Q8tS-9hYo

It has been 7 years since the Planck observatory nailed the standard LCDM cosmology (2013), and almost 2 years since its last data release nailed the form of inflation (2018; tested in two independent ways, it is eternal "slow roll" inflation with natural exit). The current Hubble rate tension can possibly (though unlikely, since it's hard) modify LCDM, but inflation depends mostly on flat space (and cosmic background spectra statistics) which is readily seen in the cosmic background spectra and won't go away. So it is high time that all popularization gets this correct!

*) And on that topic of "Who's on first", I'm all for phase transitions as the high energy inflation field gave way for low energy fields such as our standard particles and dark matter fields (which is consistent with inflation physics), and possibly high energy non-linear couplings if that is what it takes to give the observed fast "natural exit" out of inflation (again consistent with observed physics). Just not such high energy that they reintroduce topological defects such as cosmic strings (that are not seen).
 
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Feb 20, 2020
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No he didn't. It's a matter of perspective and therefore opinion. Personally inflation first, if it even happened, makes far more sense. This article by Ethan Siegel gives a nice explanation: https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.forbes.com/sites/startswithabang/2019/10/22/what-came-first-inflation-or-the-big-bang/amp/
Science writer and scientist John Gribbin also theorizes inflation before the Big Bang. https://www.amazon.ca/Before-Big-Bang-Kindle-Single-ebook/dp/B00T6L43NY
 
Jan 3, 2020
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Science writer and scientist John Gribbin also theorizes inflation before the Big Bang. https://www.amazon.ca/Before-Big-Bang-Kindle-Single-ebook/dp/B00T6L43NY
Quite. But it is a bit dated [I see a review from 2015; oddly the book isn't supplied with a publishing year, but perhaps it is a direct-to-ebook work] and from what I can glean even Gibbins seems to stay in the tradition of putting a time limit on inflation. The inflation theory is a bit odd as well. looks like some mishmash of early Guth and Linde theories, and gives bubble universes. Planck 2018 constrains inflation physics from observation and gives an indefinite ("eternal") inflation process with natural pocket universes instead. (Bubble universe comes from a different kind of physics.) I'm not saying that it's time to popularize the latest, most likely inflation observations (though maybe it is), just that authors should start reject the junk - such as, arguably*, claims of a definite time of inflation or of an underlying positive spatial curvature et cetera. The second video I linked to (links show up in the forum version of comments) is in that "good" tradition. Of course, the most important junk to reject is the claim that big bang started in a specific, small volume or defining it as the first process since the latter definition is both problematic and seems discarded by most young generation cosmologists.

*) I had to wade through a whole lot of claims of proof that inflation has to be finite and none - so far - has stood up as without problems. Of course, IMO.
 
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Feb 27, 2020
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The proposed theory explains HOW matter was not annihilated due to an amazing condition 1 million years after the big bang. It does not explain "WHY the universe exists".

Furthermore, the title incorrectly implies that the theory answers, "Why is there something rather than nothing?" This question was stated by Leibniz - a great theologian and mathematician, an inventor of calculus - 300 years ago. He was not aware of contemporary physics, but he thoroughly understood philosophical implications. From this question he developed the contingency argument for God's existence.

Trent Horn has a good explanation of Leibniz argument in the online article: "Why is there something instead of Nothing?"
 
Feb 27, 2020
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Overall, I really like Yasemin's writing style. She makes complicated subjects more understandable for the rest of us.

My biggest complaint is that the title is inaccurate (see previous post).
 
Sep 3, 2020
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You guys keep coming up with all sorts of nonse without any objective and undeniable facts to prove your statements
If the universe had been formed from the nonsensical so-called " the big bang of a point of origin " , what would have been outside the original point before it exploded to expand itself ?
There had to be an open space surrounding the original compacted point for it to have space to explode and expand . Without any open space surrounding that original point , there would have been no way for it to expand .
So what would have been the open space surrounding that assumed original point , if it had not been the iniverse itself?
No matter whatever sort of wild imagination which you guys can come up with , none of you guys can answer that simple question which obviously can put all your nonsrnsical theories into a garbage bin

Take a rubber balloon for an example to help you guys visualize how such an imagined expanding universe would have happened as do ignorantlly claimed
You have a balloon , and if you want to blow air into it to expand it size , there had to be an open space surrounding it for it to be able to expand .
If you guys cover it with some hard material such as metal sheets , it will certainly not be able to expand in any way , no matter how much more air and how hard you guys can try to blow into it .
So it is obvious that there had had to be an open space surrounding that assumed original point before it exploded as do wildly imagined by such human fiction novelists as you guys

Again , what sort of thing would have been the open space surrounding the original point , if it had not been the universe itself?

If it had not been the universe itself , it would be nonsensical being contradictory to human concept of the universe which is the largest space or the largest set containing all forms of exitence or being
If it had been the universe itself , it would still be totally nonsensical , because how on earth one thing can have two different sizes at the same time like saying you guys can have two different bodies of different sizes at the sa.e time
It is totally absurd to claim that the universe was formed by such a nonsrnsical big bang to expand from an original point to the infinite space as it is today
I can tell you guys that all what you guys have been taught at schools of all levels of education are merely relative truths or subjective reality by human subjective interpretation based on their ignorance or too limited knowledge of the structure and mechanism of the universe which have created all.mstters or all forms of exitence or being in the universe , including the Earth and all the beings on it
Such human concepts of time or space time , direction and dimension exist only within human limited knowledge and the boundary of the limited space observable to human limited knowledge, bit never exist outside the boundary of that limited space , in the infinite space of the universe
There are only two fundamental concepts in objecive reality of the whole universe which are :
1) different forms of existence or being and their transformations
2) their endless motions by the interractions among their gravitational fields and forces

All other concepts are human -created to serve ham ignorance of the structure and mechanism of the universe to help them interpret what they can observe in the universe in a certain way
The human concepts of time and space are actually the same natural phenomenon , bit not at all two different separate things as always so misunderstood by all human beings

The humam concept of time originated in the earth's motions or rotation around its axis and its movements around the Sun . Human beings became aware of the changes of the amount of sun light shine on the Earth's surface and the changes between sunlight and darkness while the Earth was rotating around its axis , and gradually found the changes in weather conditions while the Earth was moving around the Sun , then the concept of the changes of the Earth's states and positions gradually became human concept of time
So the human concept of time is founded on their awareness of the changes of the volume of sunlight and day time with sunlight and night time without sunlight or with darkness , and each cycle of sunlight and darkness later was interpreted by human beings as being composed of 24 main different states of the Earth with different amount of sunlight shone on the Earth's surface as it rotated around its axis and the rested cycle of 4 main different weather conditions as the Earth moved around the Sun , and they noticed that it took about 365 times of a compete cycle of changes between sunlight and darkness by the Earth's rotation around its axis to cover the four different or distinct patterns of weather conditions now known as 4 seasons of 365 also days
Each complete rotation circle which the Earth makes around its axis is equal to one state of sunlight and one state of darkness which is a day today .
One complete rotation circle is approximayely equal to the Earth's circumference which is a distance or a value in length of space
And similarly each of the 24 states is equal to one hour today can be converted to a length of space or a distance by dividing the Earth's circumference by 24 , the by 1440 for the value of one minute , and by 8640 for the value of 1 second , and by multiplying the Earth's circumference by 365 times also so for the distance of a complete evolution which the Earth makes
So it is obvious that all the human concepts of time like year , month, week, day , minute and second are nothing else other than the distances made by the Earth's rotation around its axis and movements around the Sun
Now I guess you guys are begging to understand what i am saying , which have never been taught at any best university in the world , and will help all mankind stop wasting their energy on such nonsrnsical theories and the non-existent
I don't have enough time to go on .But I promise you guys will hear what you guys have never ever heard of in the world of natural science , and will witness an unprecendented events which topple s lot of acknowledged human scientific achievements in both natural science and social science
 
Jan 27, 2020
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You guys keep coming up with all sorts of nonse without any objective and undeniable facts to prove your statements
If the universe had been formed from the nonsensical so-called " the big bang of a point of origin " , what would have been outside the original point before it exploded to expand itself ?
There had to be an open space surrounding the original compacted point for it to have space to explode and expand . Without any open space surrounding that original point , there would have been no way for it to expand .
So what would have been the open space surrounding that assumed original point , if it had not been the iniverse itself?
No matter whatever sort of wild imagination which you guys can come up with , none of you guys can answer that simple question which obviously can put all your nonsrnsical theories into a garbage bin

Take a rubber balloon for an example to help you guys visualize how such an imagined expanding universe would have happened as do ignorantlly claimed
You have a balloon , and if you want to blow air into it to expand it size , there had to be an open space surrounding it for it to be able to expand .
If you guys cover it with some hard material such as metal sheets , it will certainly not be able to expand in any way , no matter how much more air and how hard you guys can try to blow into it .
So it is obvious that there had had to be an open space surrounding that assumed original point before it exploded as do wildly imagined by such human fiction novelists as you guys

Again , what sort of thing would have been the open space surrounding the original point , if it had not been the universe itself?

If it had not been the universe itself , it would be nonsensical being contradictory to human concept of the universe which is the largest space or the largest set containing all forms of exitence or being
If it had been the universe itself , it would still be totally nonsensical , because how on earth one thing can have two different sizes at the same time like saying you guys can have two different bodies of different sizes at the sa.e time
It is totally absurd to claim that the universe was formed by such a nonsrnsical big bang to expand from an original point to the infinite space as it is today
I can tell you guys that all what you guys have been taught at schools of all levels of education are merely relative truths or subjective reality by human subjective interpretation based on their ignorance or too limited knowledge of the structure and mechanism of the universe which have created all.mstters or all forms of exitence or being in the universe , including the Earth and all the beings on it
Such human concepts of time or space time , direction and dimension exist only within human limited knowledge and the boundary of the limited space observable to human limited knowledge, bit never exist outside the boundary of that limited space , in the infinite space of the universe
There are only two fundamental concepts in objecive reality of the whole universe which are :
1) different forms of existence or being and their transformations
2) their endless motions by the interractions among their gravitational fields and forces

All other concepts are human -created to serve ham ignorance of the structure and mechanism of the universe to help them interpret what they can observe in the universe in a certain way
The human concepts of time and space are actually the same natural phenomenon , bit not at all two different separate things as always so misunderstood by all human beings

The humam concept of time originated in the earth's motions or rotation around its axis and its movements around the Sun . Human beings became aware of the changes of the amount of sun light shine on the Earth's surface and the changes between sunlight and darkness while the Earth was rotating around its axis , and gradually found the changes in weather conditions while the Earth was moving around the Sun , then the concept of the changes of the Earth's states and positions gradually became human concept of time
So the human concept of time is founded on their awareness of the changes of the volume of sunlight and day time with sunlight and night time without sunlight or with darkness , and each cycle of sunlight and darkness later was interpreted by human beings as being composed of 24 main different states of the Earth with different amount of sunlight shone on the Earth's surface as it rotated around its axis and the rested cycle of 4 main different weather conditions as the Earth moved around the Sun , and they noticed that it took about 365 times of a compete cycle of changes between sunlight and darkness by the Earth's rotation around its axis to cover the four different or distinct patterns of weather conditions now known as 4 seasons of 365 also days
Each complete rotation circle which the Earth makes around its axis is equal to one state of sunlight and one state of darkness which is a day today .
One complete rotation circle is approximayely equal to the Earth's circumference which is a distance or a value in length of space
And similarly each of the 24 states is equal to one hour today can be converted to a length of space or a distance by dividing the Earth's circumference by 24 , the by 1440 for the value of one minute , and by 8640 for the value of 1 second , and by multiplying the Earth's circumference by 365 times also so for the distance of a complete evolution which the Earth makes
So it is obvious that all the human concepts of time like year , month, week, day , minute and second are nothing else other than the distances made by the Earth's rotation around its axis and movements around the Sun
Now I guess you guys are begging to understand what i am saying , which have never been taught at any best university in the world , and will help all mankind stop wasting their energy on such nonsrnsical theories and the non-existent
I don't have enough time to go on .But I promise you guys will hear what you guys have never ever heard of in the world of natural science , and will witness an unprecendented events which topple s lot of acknowledged human scientific achievements in both natural science and social science
Time in classical physics and in Einstein's Relativity

In classical physics, time is absolute and invariable. All clocks tick at the same rate and everyone’s experience of time is the same. In this sense, the concept of time here is very similar to our everyday experience of it. However, what is important is that classical physics does not choose an arrow of time. Time-reversing a process or event is just as valid in classical physics as the original process. It makes as much sense to walk forward up a street as it does to walk backwards down the street as far the laws of classical physics are concerned.



Atomic Clocks and General Relativity

Physicist Daniel Kleppner on precise time measurements, gravitational field, and the Global Positioning System

With regard to the notion of time, quantum mechanics is very similar to classical physics. Time is still ticking away in the background, at the same constant rate, and is used to assign a defining label to events. Of course, together with the central equation of quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation, which is time-symmetric, is the concept of the collapse of the wavefunction. This idea is the key difference between classical and quantum physics and asserts that the state of a system in question is only determined once an observation is made by an external agent. Thus, the collapse of the wavefunction is the process by which quantum uncertainty is broken. At least naively, this seems to be a time-asymmetric process. However, given that the mechanism by which the collapse of the wavefunction takes place is poorly understood, it is difficult to assert that it is indeed a process that defines an arrow of time. In particular, there are convincing arguments to suggest that it is, in fact, a time-symmetric process.

The theory that completely changes our paradigm of what time is, is Einstein’s theory of relativity. Relativity asserts that the progression of time is not universal and depends intimately on who is measuring it. In this picture of reality, watches tick at different rates, depending on who is wearing them. By accelerating at extraordinary rates or being present in the vicinity of strong gravitational forces, such as those around a black hole, one can change the rate at which time flows, even bringing it to a stop or reversing it, at least theoretically. For example, for a person inside a black hole, space and time seem to interchange. Here, it is the descend into the black hole singularity that becomes inevitable, just as the forward flow of time was outside the black hole. On the other hand, “time” becomes just another direction like left or right.

Relativity puts time on an equal footing with the spatial directions that we are used to; the consequence being that just as spatial directions are not universal and can, for example, be curved, so too can the time direction be “curved.” A measure of this curvature is the rate as which it proceeds. Nevertheless, in relativity too, the equations are time-symmetric; that is they do not favour a particular arrow of time.
Spacetime

Spacetime curvature (Wikipedia.org)

The one feature that classical, quantum and relativistic mechanics share with respect to time is that neither theory designates an arrow of time. Solutions to their equations can break time symmetry, but the theories themselves are time-symmetric. So where does the time asymmetry that we experience around us come from?

Most of the time asymmetry that we experience results from thermodynamics. In particular, the second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy (roughly the amount of disorder) of a system increases with time. A consequence of this law is that, for example, you will never expect to see a puddle of water unmelting in the sun to form a block of ice and hence heat up its surrounding. It must be stressed that this law is a statistical statement rather than a rigorous mathematical result derived from the equations of fundamental physics. Why such a statistical law ought to be true and how it is related to the fundamental theories of nature is the “arrow of time problem.”
 
Mar 6, 2020
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It is a ribbon - comprised of many of these 'strings' - that holds up the earth into its position. These strings are being cut one by one. What will happen when they are all cut I wonder?
Could we have more detail on these strings of yours that appear to be holding up the earth like a child's mobile?
 

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