At the time of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), approximately 10 million square miles (~ 26 million square kilometers) of the earth was covered by ice. During this time, Iceland was completely covered as was much of the area south of it as far as the British Isles. In addition, northern Europe was covered as far south as Germany and Poland. In North America, all of Canada and portions of the United States were covered by ice sheets as far south as the Missouri and Ohio Rivers. The Last Glacial Period occurred from the end of the Eemian to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period c. 115,000 – c. 11,700 years ago. Glaciers have been retreating for the past 11,700 years.