A New Theory on the Formation and Propagation of Radio Waves:

Aug 31, 2020
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The existence of radio-waves was brilliantly foretold by James Clerk Maxwell based on Michael Faraday’s practical work and his own theoretical calculations, as far back as 1865. It took another 20 years however, before Heinrich Hertz physically produced radio-waves in his laboratory in 1886. Ironically Hertz was not aware of the importance of his discovery. He is said to have remarked:

“I do not think my discovery of radio-waves will have any practical application.” Heinrich Hertz.

How wrong Hertz was in his assessment of his discovery! Today our very existence is defined by radio-waves. A large part of our lives is governed by radio-waves, everything from the kitchen where micro-wave ovens play a large role, to the dissemination of information in the form of radio transmissions and televised media, to computers and the internet, is governed by radio-waves. Cars, ships and planes are directed through GPS (Global Positioning Systems). In space Radio astronomy has played an increasingly important role. Improvements in deep space communications have made possible the attaining of extensive and in depth knowledge of our solar system, the Galaxy and the Universe. Yet it is amazing to learn that a rigorous explanation for what radio waves are, how they are formed and of how they propagate has yet to be formulated. A hazy explanation does exist but not enough thought has been given to this very important subject of radio communications, especially given its increasingly important role in our lives via the internet and media.

What are radio-waves and how are they formed? To put it in a nutshell radio-waves are formed whenever an electrical current flows through a wire. One may ask, if that is the case why is it so difficult to explain the formation of radiowaves? The difficulty of explaining how radiowaves form lies in the fact that the present day understanding of an electrical current is wrong. Existing theories put forward by Standard Theory and quantum mechanics for the propagation of an electric current through a wire is based upon the theory that it is electrons that are the charge carriers in an electrical conductor. This theory is completely wrong as can be proved by a simple inspection of the facts. Here is a fairly comprehensive mainstream physics account of how an electrical current propagates through a wire:

The mechanism of energy transport through a medium involves the absorption and re-emission of the wave energy by the atoms of the material. When an electromagnetic wave impinges upon the atoms of a material, the energy of that wave is absorbed. The absorption of energy causes the electrons within the atoms to undergo vibrations. After a short period of vibrational motion, the vibrating electrons create a new electromagnetic wave with the same frequency as the first electromagnetic wave. While these vibrations occur for only a very short time, they delay the motion of the wave through the medium. Once the energy of the electromagnetic wave is re-emitted by an atom, it travels through a small region of space between atoms. Once it reaches the next atom, the electromagnetic wave is absorbed, transformed into electron vibrations and then re-emitted as an electromagnetic wave. While the electromagnetic wave will travel at a speed of c (3×108m/s ) through the vacuum of inter-atomic space, the absorption and re-emission process causes the net speed of the electromagnetic wave to be less than c. the absorption and re-emission of the wave energy by the atoms of the material. While the electromagnetic wave will travel at a speed of c (3×10^8 m/s ) through the vacuum of inter-atomic space, the absorption and re-emission process causes the net speed of the electromagnetic wave to be less than c. The Physics Classroom

The above account is wrong because it is known that the majority of an electric current is carried by free electrons, whereas this passage refers only to atoms. It is easy to see why this account of an electric current does not include free electrons in its explanations. Free electrons are not included in this explanation of the propagation of an electric current through a wire because free electrons are not allowed to oscillate because they have nothing against which the forces of oscillation can be balanced. A bound electron has the massive nucleus to balance forces which a free electron lacks. Therefore, the laws of the conservation of energy and momentum exclude the possibility of a free electron emitting an electromagnetic wave. Thus, this explanation of the flow of an electric current through electrons bound to atoms in the crystal lattice of the conductor is proved to be false, as is the theory that free electrons can emit electromagnetic radiation also found to be false.

Gestalt Aether Theory on the Formation and Propagation of radiowaves

Gestalt Aether theory states that the current in a conductor is carried by photons and not by electrons as has been the belief in mainstream physics for a hundred years or more. When a free electron moving in a conductor emits a photon, in order to evade the Conservation of energy laws, it has to reabsorb the same or an identical photon in a time on the order of 10−15 seconds or less. The photon that has been emitted is also in a similar position, it has to be reabsorbed by an electron with a similar energy to that which has emitted it. The nearest source of such electrons are within the conductor. Therefore since the situation prevailing in the conductor viz-a-viz the photon is chaotic inside the conductor at room temperatures the situation that often results is that a photon is emitted by an electron, by the time it can be reabsorbed that particular electron has already absorbed another identical photon, so the photon that was emitted first leaves the conductor and spirals round to re-enter the conductor and be absorbed by another electron. Since the conductor like everything else is immersed in a sea of virtual photons that line up in the direction of propagation of a real emitted photon, what results is the lines of force seen around an electrical conductor. Because of the direction in which the current is moving the right hand rule and the spiral formation of the lines of force around an electrical conductor are perfectly explained by this theory.

Going from the question of the propagation of electricity within a wire, (conductor) to the question of the formation and propagation of radio waves. It is best to examine and define what radio waves are: It has long been known that radio-waves possess the identical properties that optical light, x-rays and gamma rays posses with the exception that their energies and frequencies are very low by comparison. Infra-red waves can be considered to be optical photons (light) when they possess a wave length of below 1200 nm however infra red with wave-lengths longer than this, termed the long infra-red should be classified as radio-waves and not as optical light waves. Thus micro-waves, which are also radio waves, range in wave length of from 1mm to 1 m, everything with longer wave-lengths are considered to be radiowaves. The table given below illustrates this relationship:

electromagneticspectrum.jpg

In order to understand radio-waves and microwaves it is necessary to understand that this branch of electromagnetic radiation possesses identical properties to that of optical photons and photons of higher energy and frequency such as x-rays and gamma rays. This means that radio waves: travel at the speed of light, are massless, are electrically neutral, maintain their energy or identity intact over immense distances, follow the inverse square law of dispersion, come in an immense variety of frequencies, wavelengths and energies. What is at present known about optical photons and photons of higher energies and microwaves and radio waves? We know very definitely that optical photons or visible light and x-rays are emitted directly by the electron. We also know that very high energy photons such as gamma rays are emitted at the time of the destruction of the atomic nucleus. We also know that micro-waves and radio wave are not emitted by electrons within the atom but seem to have a different source. Gestalt Aether Theory finds it unacceptable to believe either that (a) an electron with a size of 10^-13cm can oscillate in such a fashion as to be able to give rise to photons having immense wave lengths of 5,000,000 m or that (b) such massive wave lengths as 5,000,000 m can be directly emitted by electrons having a size of 10^-13m. What is the solution? A good place to begin is with limiting the size of the longest wave length photon that an electron can emit.

A key concept in the Gestalt Aether Theory of light is that of limiting the size of the longest wave-length photon that an electron can emit. Present theories hold that low energy electromagnetic radiation like radio waves are emitted by reason of the jiggling or oscillation of atoms and ions within an electrical conductor (lattice vibrations), while high energy electromagnetic radiation such as light and x-rays are directly emitted by electrons within an atom due to stimulation. The problem with this theory is that some radio waves, like those due to a 60 Hz ac current are more than 5 km in length. The question is how can the oscillation of an electron with a size of 10^-13m (classical radius of electron) result in a wave which is 5 x 10^6 m in length?. It is difficult to imagine these numbers in terms of actual dimensions or sizes, the difference in size between an electron and a wave-length of 5 x 10^6 m is the unbelievably huge figure of 10^19 It is almost axiomatic that the two sizes have nothing in common but is there a way in which some commonalty can be established, GAT claims that there is? Further this huge 5 x 10^6 m wave length possesses all the properties of a normal photon, it travels at the speed of light, retains its energy etc., how can two such identical phenomena (i.e. high energy light waves and low energy radio waves) be attributed to two (or in fact three) different causative factors? High energy photons being directly emitted by excited electrons while low energy photons (like radio waves) are attributed to the oscillation of atoms and the movement of free electrons under drift velocity in the conductor. Surely this is bad science? The Gestalt Aether Theory states that there is a limit to the longest wave-length photon that an electron can emit and that the size of this wave-length is about 1.2 x 10^-6 m which is considerably below the longest wave-length of visible light.

So how do large wave lengths form? The Gestalt Aether Theory answer to this is that all electromagnetic radiation greater than 1.2 x 10^-6 m in wave length are composite waves , i.e. they are made up of joined or connected photons. This joining up of photons is made possible because of their solenoid di-pole structure and can take place in two orientations; in series:

photon in series.png

or in parallel.:

photons in parallel.png

The largest photon wave length which an electron can emit is also, according to the Gestalt Aether Theory, the photon which carries electrical energy and hence has been named the “conduction“ photon. Light when it travels through substances such as glass, crystal or water uses according to one school of thought, passes through the substance, by the process of photons being rapidly absorbed and emitted during its passage. Yet when it comes to the conduction of electrical energy it is believed that it is electrons that serve to conduct electrical energy. Thus, although every other form of energy related to electrons such as radiation and heat is mediated by photons, an exception is at present made in the case of electricity. Photons according to quantum mechanics cannot exist within a conductor due to the provisions of the Laws of the conservation of momentum. Yet there are many facts which militate against this theory, electrons in a conductor have a drift velocity of 10^-3 cm/sec one hundredth of a millimeter per second, while the current is seen to be established at approx. the speed of light or 3 x 10^10 cm/sec. (thirty billion millimeters a second), this is a huge discrepancy, how is it possible to rationalize this inconsistency? Gestalt Aether Theory holds that electric current flows in an electrical conductor when free electrons in the conductor emit and absorb ‘conduction’ photons. Quantum mechanics tells us that it is not possible for a free electron to absorb or emit photons due to the fact that the forces of recoil involved would violate the conservation of energy. Thus a simple inability to cope with conservation of energy and momentum laws forbids free electrons from either absorbing or emitting photons. Nevertheless the HUP, (Heisenberg’s Exclusion Principle) dealing with energy and time states that if an interaction takes place fast enough it can elude the conservation of energy laws !


hupcons.jpg

What does this mean? It means simply that if a free electron travelling in a conductor emits a photon and then is able to re-absorb that photon fast enough, then it has avoided the conservation of momentum laws. In other words the energy multiplied by the time of the emission absorption process should be greater than Which gives an approximate time of 10^-15 s for the emission and absorption process:

For instance if

energy = 1.6666 x 10^-19 J

h = 6.34 x 10^-34

then h/ 1.6666 x 10^-19 = 3.9 x 10^-15 s

Therefore, according to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, if the emission and absorption of a photon by a free electron take place within a time period of approx. 3.9 x 10^-15 s, it will be allowed by the laws of the conservation of energy and momentum.

A simple calculation shows that this time interval provides no problems for electrons in a wire carrying a current. Electrons being radiated or agitated by sunlight for instance regularly maintain a rate of oscillation in the range of 10^14 so that to emit and reabsorb a conduction photon in the time interval of 3.9 x 10^-15 s would be no problem at all. Thus, the Gestalt Aether theory states that electricity is conducted not by electrons but by photons.

Radio-waves:
The crucial question is what happens to these photons? They have been emitted by a free electron. They have to be reabsorbed as soon as possible so they exit the conductor and the ‘virtual’ photons of the ‘virtual’ photon aether immediately (the ‘virtual photon Aether and its genesis have been described in “The Electromagnetic Universe : https://forums.livescience.com/threads/the-electromagnetic-universe-a-new-theory.3556/) line up in the direction of their propagation with the result that what we know of as electromagnetic lines of force appear around the conductor. Because photons are being emitted and then immediately being re-absorbed. Why do the photons re-enter the conductor? They re-enter the conductor because these photons can only be reabsorbed by electrons needing a similar quantum of energy to that which they carry. The nearest source of such electrons is within the conductor so the photons re-enter the conductor forming what we know of as lines of force. Each line of force has the energy of one ‘conduction’ photon. Now what happens if the flow of the current suddenly stops? Those photons that are in lines of force in the near field immediately re-enter the conductor going in the reverse direction since the polarity of the difference of potential has changed and the electrons within the conductor are receptive to conduction photons but travelling in the opposite direction. The photons that are in lines of force in the far field outside the conductor suddenly find themselves without a resolution i.e., there is no source of suitable electrons in the vicinity, since the electrons within the conductor are no longer receptive. They therefore realign themselves in parallel and leave the conductor at the speed of light, in this case each line of force shares the energy of a single ‘conduction’ photon, and is to all purposes a very large photon, possessing all the properties of a photon and propagating according to the inverse square law of dispersion. These extremely large photons are what we think of as micro-waves and radio-waves and are ‘composite’ waves being constructed of innumerable numbers of conduction photons linked together in parallel, each ‘composite’ radio wave or micro wave possesses the energy of a single conduction photon divided by the number of conduction photons connected in parallel in the composite radio wave or micro wave. The number of ‘conduction’ photons in each radio wave (or micro wave) can be calculated by dividing the speed of light by the time or period of the wave (i.e., frequency) and then dividing the result by the ‘conduction’ photon wave length of 1.2 x 10^-6 m. If the energy of a conduction photon is divided by this number (i.e: the number of conduction photons in the composite wave length) the correct energy of the ‘composite’ wave can be calculated.

This orientation of the photons explains the energy difference between near and far fields around a conductor forming what we know of as lines of force. Each line of force arranged in series has the energy of one ‘conduction’ photon. These photons are connected in series.

This orientation of the photons (in series and in parallel) explains the energy difference between near and far fields. The far fields are radio waves. According to Gestalt Aether Theory, the fundamental charge carrier involved in the transmission of electricity is not as has erroneously believed for the past two hundred years the electron, but the photon. The Gestalt Aether Theory hypotheses is that photons are emitted and immediately re-absorbed by free electrons within the conductor (brouillion zone) in keeping with Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle and are therefore are able to avoid the Laws of conservation which otherwise would prevent such emission and absorption of photons by free electrons present in the conductor:

hupcons.jpg

One of the outcomes of this extremely rapid emission and absorption of photons by free electrons within the conductor are the lines of force that appear around any current carrying conductor. These lines of force are the manifestation of the ‘virtual’ photon Aether which form themselves up in the line of propagation of the real photon forming the complicated patterns that surround a conductor carrying electricity. Thus for those who constantly complain, where is this ‘aether’? The answer is that it is literally everywhere, surrounding the power line which comes to the house, in the electricity that runs the TV and the computer in and out of the numerous light fittings, in and around the compressor in the fridge and so on.

The following are the properties of a conduction photon:

The Quantum charge of the conduction photon




Ce = 1.6 x 10^-19J



The wavelength of the conduction photon



Cλ = 1.2 x 10^-6 m


The frequency of the conduction photon in Hz.



Cω = 2.4 x 10^14 Hz



The composite wavelength is denoted by

Com λ

Similarly, the frequency ω the wavelength λ and the energy e of the composite wavelength may be calculated either using hω (planck’s constant x frequency) or by dividing of the quantum energy of the conduction photon by the number of conduction photons in the composite wavelength, this number can be obtained by dividing the composite wavelength by the conduction photon wavelength. Now it is possible to see how the energy of the far field and the near field are produced. In the near field the ‘conduction’ photons are connected in series and each line of force holds the energy of one ‘conduction’ photon, so that in effect each line of force has an energy of 1.6 x 10^-19 J This fits in well with observed data and conforms with the flow of an electric current. Note that here the drift velocity of the electrons does not matter, (it is not connected with the formation of radio waves at all) the ‘conduction’ photons each deliver 1.6 x 10^-19 J. Since 1 coulomb of charge represents 6.24 x 10^18 charge carriers it is possible to see how an electric current is delivered by means of lines of force that are connected in series. With regard to the far field, here also the results are in line with observed data. In the far field the ‘conduction’ photons are connected in parallel thus each line of force in the far field contains the energy of one conduction photon divided by the number of conduction photons in the composite wavelength (Comλ ). For example, given that we have a 0.75 m wavelength (Comλ )in the far field then its energy (Come)will equal : Ce/Comn = Coe i.e. energy of the conduction photon divided by the number of conduction photons present in the composite wavelength. (To get the number of conduction photons present in the composite wave Comn, the wave length of the composite wave is divided by the wavelength of the conduction photon: Comλ/Cλ = Comn = 0.75/1.2 x 10^-6 = 6.2 x 10^5 J) Therefore Come = 1.6 x 10^-19 / 6.2 x 10^5= 2.56 x 10^-25 J

The same result can be reached using frequency of the composite wave multiplied by Planck’s constant): 3.99 x 10^9 x h = e = 2.56 x 10^-25J and e = 1.6 x 10^-19 /6.2 x 10^5 = 2.56 x 10^-25 J. Thus a new way of looking at the formation and the energy of a radio wave is demonstrated. We can also see that if a voltage of one 1 volt is applied to the conductor and a current of 1 coulomb is made to flow then total current I = 6.241509324 x 10^18 conduction photons or 1.6 x 10^-19 x 6.241509324 x 10^18 = 0.999 Amp. Delivered at the speed of light C!

Any fair assessment of this paper will come to the conclusion that here is a very precise explanation of electric and radio wave phenomena. It leaves nothing unexplained and in fact even explains how induction takes place when the polarity of a conductor changes.



References


  • Electromagnetic Theory, Julius Adams Stratton, John Wiley & sons
  • Radio Wave Propagation, Martin P M Hall, Leslie Barclay, Technical Engineering.
  • Electromagnetic Field Theory, Bo Thide, Upsilon Books
  • A Gestalt Aether Theory on the Nature of Light and Related Phenomena, D. James, Educreation Publishers.
 
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