A New Theory of Gravity

Aug 31, 2020
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(Note from author: For those of you who have read my previous thread in this forum (Space and Astronomy) entitled: “The Electromagnetic Universe: A New Physics” please, go ahead and read this post on a new theory of gravity. If you read the whole thread I can say that you will be both thrilled and shocked at this new explanation of gravity. It is a big departure from Einstein’s Ray Bradburyesque spacetime curvature, but in the end, much more acceptable. For those who have not yet read “The Electromagnetic Universe: A New Physics”, such a clear view of how gravity is explained will not be available but it might be of interest nonetheless.)

Gravity:

No other force, with the exception of light (electromagnetism), plays such a large part in human lives as gravity. It determines which side is up and which is down, it governs the time that it takes for the earth to spin once on its axis and thus the length of a day and a night, it determines the seasons and the length of the year, the tidal forces and in the end the shape of the Universe. It is a relentless force, one that acts over immeasurable distances and immense periods of time. Yet gravity is one of the weakest forces known to man.

At present mainstream physics represented by quantum mechanics and Standard Theory do not have a theory for gravity and depend instead on General Relativity. Newtonian gravity is considered to be a limiting case of general relativity. Newton's form of gravity can be derived from General Relativity as a limiting case where the strength of the gravitational field, and the velocities involved are sufficiently small. The variance in gravity at the level that General Relativity works is such that it is too faint for all but the largest and fastest systems. Otherwise Newtonian gravity fits all scenarios. Thus while most of the effects and anomalies are dealt with, by Newtonian Gravity, the actual call for General Relativity is small.

It is not possible to understand the General Relativity version of gravity without at least a basic understanding of special relativity, for without it space would not curve and time would not dilate. Imagine a space in which are 5 observers all moving with uniform motion at some fraction of the speed of light. According to Einstein each of these observers will be recording a different speed for each of the 5 objects than any of the others. So if there are 5 observers and each of them is recording a different speed than that of the others there would be 5×4 x 3 x 2 x 1 or 120 different observations as to the speed at which the 5 entities are moving. If the speed of light is taken to be constant, it means that all these 120 different observations as to the speed at which the 5 entities are moving must be the same! The only way in which this is possible is if time undergoes dilation and distances contract. Therefore according to special relativity the space and time within which the 5 entities are moving does not follow the even conditions and contours that space was once imagined to possess where everyone experienced the same time and space but is an incredibly convoluted and twisted configuration, where reality is an abstract term and every entity experiences a different reality. Thus the speed of light as a Universal Constant acts here as a divisive rather than a cohesive factor.

These weird effects of special relativity where space and time are chopped and changed depending on an observers motion and position, increasing in complexity with the number of participants, are due to certain premises adopted by special relativity and taken for granted by a large faction of the world of physics. The crucial point to remember is that according to special relativity, times do really dilate and lengths do really contract, as seen in the twin paradox. Special relativity works on the premise that there exists no preferred frame of reference. A preferred frame of reference is one in which an object such as a wave moves with a speed that is solely governed by the medium through which it is propagating regardless of the speed of its source or its destination. For instance if there existed a medium like the aether, then light would move through the aether at a fixed speed and all other frames of reference would measure their speed relative to that of the aether. Therefore, the aether would serve as a preferred frame of reference through which light moved at a fixed speed. Thus if light were travelling through an aether observers in all other frames of reference would see light travelling at a constant speed, regardless of their own motion. If the aether also pervaded the whole of the Universe then the aether would become a universal frame of reference against which all co-ordinates and all times could be measured. Here is an explanation by Sir James Jeans:

I can say for instance that an object is 50 yards north of the twentieth milestone on the Great North Road. If I tie my handkerchief to an object at this spot, take a walk, and come back to find my handkerchief still attached to the same object, I can say I have come back to the spot from which I started. On the other hand if I drop my handkerchief overboard at sea, row about, and come back to my handkerchief, I am not entitled to say I have come back to the same spot, since currents and winds are likely to have moved my handkerchief. I can only fix a position at sea by taking bearings, directly or indirectly, from the land. If space is occupied by an ether we can locate a spot in space by the former method.... If there is no ether, we can only locate a spot in space by its bearings from fixed landmarks, but where are such landmarks to be found? Not in the planets for these are moving round the sun at speeds which range from 3 to 30 miles a second. Not in the sun and stars which move past one another even more rapidly.... Nowhere in the whole of space can we find fixed landmarks from which to take our bearings, with the result that it is impossible to fix a position in space. Sir James Jeans: The New Background of Science.

Therefore, the existence of some kind of medium such as an aether would completely disprove both Special Relativity and General Relativity. The speed of light would be constant to observers in all frames of reference because light is a wave travelling through a medium and not because time dilates and length contracts. In fact proofs do exist that light probably needs a medium through which to propagate but these have been largely overlooked in the enthusiasm over special and general relativity. For instance, take the case of Cherenkov radiation where light is travelling through the medium of water. Energetic gamma rays can interact with electrons and accelerate them to speeds faster than that of light in water. One result of this is the production of blue light caused by the interaction of the electron with atoms as it passes through the water resulting in the emission of blue light in its aftermath. This is similar to the breaking of the sound barrier, where the sound is heard after the supersonic object has passed. But how does light propagate through water? It is supposed that light propagates through water by being absorbed and re-emitted by atoms in the water and that this is what slows its speed down to approximately 75% of its speed in a vacuum. If one now considers sound it is apparent that it is also moving by interacting with molecules of air. In the case of sound it is not the sound wave that is actually moving but only its energy. The same case could be made for light moving through water since it is not the same photon that moves through the substance but a new photon that is emitted and then absorbed and re-emitted etc., This is similar to the manner in which a wave travels in water, the motion being passed on from molecule to molecule. This raises the possibility that light travels through a similar type of process in a vacuum also. Obviously if such a medium exists then it negates both types of relativity. For one thing an observation of Cherenkov radiation proves beyond doubt that light does not obey Galilean transformations when propagating through a medium like water, if it did then there would be no chance for the formation of Cherenkov radiation. Light therefore propagates as a wave through a medium such as water. As such, light does not follow Galilean transformations (i.e., its speed is governed solely by the properties of the medium it is propagating through). How then, if the fact that light is a wave travelling through a medium is discounted, is the constancy of the speed of light explained? Einstein does not explain how or why the speed of light is constant, he merely assumes that in order for it to be possible to observe that light is moving at a constant speed regardless of the movement of the source or of the observer or of both together, time has to dilate and space has to contract. If this is true; all observers observe light moving at a constant speed. Yet, consider which of the two explanations is the more logically consistent answer: (a) that the speed of light is constant because it is like a wave moving through a medium OR (b) that the speed of light is constant because time dilates and space contracts in order to enable all sentient beings to observe that the speed of light is constant? The only possible riposte that could be given to this line of reasoning is that the speed of light is the limiting speed of the Universe because nothing can travel faster than light due to mass energy equivalence. But take into consideration the fact that the presence of a medium or aether that forms the very fabric of the Universe would explain far better and far more logically why the speed of light is the limiting speed of the Universe and of how this directly relates to mass energy equivalence? A virtual photon aether such as that claimed by Gestalt aether Theory would be the dividing line between finite energy as we know it and pure or limitless energy that would exist if the speed of light was not the limiting speed of the Universe. If a solid object tries to travel through the aether it would not be possible for it to reach the speed of light because it would in effect be making the change from matter to energy (i.e., all speeds above the speed of light in a vacuum result in a transition to pure energy) and in doing so would accumulate almost infinite mass. So the faster an object travels through the aether the more mass it accumulates. So far this is in keeping with Einstein’s own observations.

Thus it would be impossible for solid objects possessing mass to travel faster than the speed of light. At the time when special relativity was formulated it was thought that space was an absolute vacuum and that this demonstrated that light did not need a medium to propagate through; today the contention is that space is not a vacuum at all but that it is teeming with energies. This brings back the possibility of the existence of an aether type of medium. In fact even in our houses and working environments the air is full of electromagnetic radiation that we cannot see or detect using our senses but which is definitely there, this invisible energy is in fact according to Gestalt aether Theory, a manifestation of the electromagnetic type of medium consisting of ‘virtual photons’ that permeates the whole of space. Another property of light which seems to indicate that it propagates as a wave is that it is subject to a blue shift or a red shift depending on whether it is coming towards you or moving away. Objects that obey Galilean transformation do not exhibit red or blue shift properties. This, apart from proofs such as; interference, refraction, reflection and diffraction all militate against Einstein’s interpretation of light.

The Gestalt aether Theory states that the whole of the Universe is completely filled with a ‘virtual photon’ medium that resembles infinitesimal electromagnetic dipoles that provide co-ordinates for every part of the Universe. This ‘virtual photon’ medium therefore serves not only as a privileged frame of reference through which light propagates at a fixed speed but also as a Universal frame of reference against which all co-ordinates and time can be plotted. It therefore flies squarely against Einstein’s special relativity.


General Relativity

General relativity adds another twist to this already bizarre view by stating that it is mass that causes space to curve around it. Thus according to General Relativity gravity is a property of mass and its effect on space. Einstein's general theory of relativity explains gravity as a distortion of space (or more precisely, spacetime) caused by the presence of matter or energy. A massive object generates a gravitational field by warping the geometry of the surrounding spacetime. The Einstein Field Equation is given below:

Gμν = 8πTμν

On the left side of the equation is a tensor describing the geometry of spacetime— the gravitational field. On the right is the tensor describing the matter and energy density — the source of the gravitational field. The equation shows that spacetime geometry equals mass-energy density when adjusted with the proper units and numerical constants. (Actually, the equation stands for a set of multiple equations owing to the complexity of tensors. So experts usually speak of the Einstein field equations, plural.)

For weak gravitational fields Einstein's gravity adds a small correction to Newton's gravitational field. The Newtonian gravitational field for a point mass of mass M at distance R, for instance, is given by GM/R where G is Newton's constant of gravity. If his equation is divided by the speed of light squared it becomes GM/c^2R, which is "dimensionless"; it is a number with no units of measure. At the surface of the Earth, this is about 7×10^−10. The correction that is contributed by Einstein's gravity to this value is proportional to (GM/c^2R)^2, which is more than 9 orders of magnitude smaller, about 5×10^−19. To sum it all up, for weak fields, Einstein's general relativity contributes a small correction in the 9th or the 10th decimal digit when calculating a gravitational field.

A dimensionless quantity is a quantity to which no physical dimension is assigned. It is also known as a bare number or pure number or a quantity of dimension one and the corresponding unit of measurement in the SI is one (or 1) unit and it is not explicitly shown.

Dimensionless quantities are widely used in many fields, such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, engineering, and economics. Examples of quantities, to which dimensions are regularly assigned, are length, time, and speed, which are measured in dimensional units, such as metre, second and metre per second. This is considered to aid intuitive understanding. However, especially in mathematical physics, it is often more convenient to drop the assignment of explicit dimensions and express the quantities without dimensions, e.g., addressing the speed of light simply by the dimensionless number 1.

Newton’s theory of gravity based on experiment and observation is striking for its simplicity. The force of gravity between two objects acts on a straight line between the objects. The force is proportional to the density of the object and not to its surface area. Therefore a less dense large object might exert less gravity than a smaller denser object. The force of gravity varies inversely according to the square of the distance between the objects and is always an attractive force never a repulsive one. With these simple observations and using the Universal Gravitational constant it is possible to account for almost all of the gravitational forces and effects that are observed in the Universe, including as GAT will demonstrate, at the atomic level. Gravity appears to operate from the centres of objects. The problem with this theory is that Newton had no clue as to what caused gravity. He was only able to hypothesise that there must be some agent through which these effects were achieved but was unwilling, in view of the fact that there was no evidence for the existence of such an agent to hypothesise as to what that agent might be. In fact Newton was so troubled by this aspect of gravity namely that it seemed to require no medium by which to propagate and therefore would have to act almost instantaneously, that he almost withheld his theory of gravity:

It is inconceivable, that inanimate brute matter should, without the mediation of something else, which is not material, operate upon and affect other matter without mutual contact … That gravity should be innate, inherent, and essential to matter, so that one body may act upon another at a distance, through a vacuum, without the mediation of anything else, by and through which their action and force may be conveyed from one to another, is to me so great an absurdity, that I believe no man who has in philosophical matters a competent faculty of thinking, can ever fall into it. Gravity must be caused by an agent, acting constantly according to certain laws; but whether this agent be material or immaterial, I have left to the consideration of my readers. Sir Isaac Newton, Principia Mathematica.

If one thinks about this statement made nearly 400 years ago, with the minimum of technological equipment to depend on, it is astonishing in its depth of understanding. He reasons that there must exist some agent, either material or immaterial according to which gravity acts. In coming to this conclusion he closely follows the Gestalt aether Theory reasoning on the causative factors of gravity. It is a cause of dismay that Einstein and his supporters treat this frank statement of an admission of an inability to explain how gravity acts by Newton, as a weak point in Newtonian gravity, claiming that it shows that the theory demonstrates that gravity acts instantaneously. The above statement shows that Newton was very much aware of this flaw in his theory but that he openly admitted it and depended upon future physicists to offer an explanation. Newton’s greatness is clearly shown in the following statement:

I have not been able to discover the cause of those properties of gravity from phenomena, and I frame no hypotheses; for whatever is not deduced from the phenomena is to be called a hypothesis, and hypotheses, whether metaphysical or physical, whether of occult qualities or mechanical, have no place in experimental philosophy. Sir Isaac Newton, Principia Mathematica.

Newton freely admits that he has no idea of the causative factors behind gravity, yet at the same time he refuses to take the easy way out which would be to postulate the existence of some kind of aether like medium through which gravity could propagate, on the grounds that such hypotheses based on ‘occult’ (hidden) evidence have no place in experimental philosophy.

However, if Newton was not able to explain why gravity worked in the way it did, he was able to brilliantly explain how gravity worked. The most impressive part of Newton’s theory of gravity is that it appears to explain gravity, not as a macro phenomenon, but one that acts on an atomic level. This is the most interesting part of Newton’s gravitational theory. He realised that it was not the size of objects that affected the gravitational force that they exerted but their density. The following is a quote from his principia mathematica:

Thus far I have explained the phenomena of the heavens and of our sea by the force of gravity, but I have not yet assigned a cause to gravity. Indeed, this force arises from some cause that penetrates as far as the centers of the sun and planets without any diminution of its power to act, and that acts not in proportion to the quantity of the surfaces of the particles on which it acts (as mechanical causes are wont to do) but in proportion to the quantity of solid matter, and whose action is extended everywhere to immense distances, always decreasing as the squares of the distances. Sir Isaac Newton Principia Mathematica.

Gestalt aether Theory:

Gestalt aether Theory which stipulates an electromagnetic Universe, offers an explanation that closely follows Newton’s hypothesis on gravity while at the same time accounting for all observed phenomena relating to gravity. Gestalt aether Theory holds that the Universe is permeated by the earliest light (photons) from the Big Bang. According to GAT light consists of individual photons emitted by electrons. Also according to GAT the frequency of a photon is a real term, so if light of 500 THz is being detected it means that electrons are emitting light at the rate of 5×10^14 photons per second! The ratio of light (photons) to matter would thus have been huge. What happened to all that light? These are interactions that took place over millions of years, the total amount of light created must have been staggering. The structure of the photon proposed by Gestalt aether Theory, allows them to link together, as the Universe expanded with the Big Bang this linked together network of photons expanded with the Universe while at the time sharing their energy between themselves. Eventually this resulted in these photons possessing such low energies on the order of 10^−40J (6.32×10^−22eV) that they for all purposes ceased to exist. No atoms could possibly have a use for photons of such low energies. Matter was thus absolutely permeable to such photons. The same low energy also enables these photons to have extremely long life spans in keeping with Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle as related to time and energy.

Δe Δt < h

Thus a picture emerges of a Universe that is completely permeated by these virtual minimal energy photons which resemble infinitesimal individual electromagnetic dipoles oriented at random. In the presence of a real photon (i.e., when an electron emits a real photon) the photons of the virtual photon aether line up in the direction of the propagation of the real photon, forming into a line whose ends rest on infinity and the energy of the real photon travels along this line of aligned photons. Before going any further it is preferable that the theory behind how these low energy photons came to permeate the whole of the Universe be briefly explained. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle was originally formulated as a function of the momentum and position of sub-atomic particles. It states that the more certainty there exists about the position of a particle, the less certainty that can exist about its momentum and vice-versa. If it is possible to determine the position of the particle accurately it becomes impossible to simultaneously detect it momentum. On the other hand if a precise measurement of the momentum of the particle is made there can be no certainty as to its position.

hΔpΔ ≥ h

Later it was found that in addition to the reciprocal uncertainty of position and momentum there also exists a reciprocal uncertainty of time and energy. The less uncertainty there is about a time involved is a sub-atomic event the greater will be the uncertainty concerning the energy involved in the event and vice versa. For instance a measurement of 10^-15 s might leave very little uncertainty about the time taken for the event but the energy involved in the event, such as the emission and absorption of a virtual photon, would be undetermined:

tΔeΔh

These interactions play a great part in the formulation of the Gestalt aether Theory. GAT states that at several levels the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle makes perfect sense. A natural consequence of investigating the very small is that things taken for granted at the macro level are not necessarily the same when viewed at the microscopic level. For instance a piece of paper viewed at the macro level appears completely different when viewed through a microscope. The smooth surface disappears and what are seen are rough peaks and valleys, as the magnification increases first rope like strands of cellulose might be seen separated by voids together with glassy like elements of glue, until finally what will be seen is the shapes of the atoms constituting the paper. Thus there should be no cause for surprise if at the level of the very, very small, events take place at such tiny time scales or involving such infinitesimal energies that they completely escape the notice of the Laws of Conservation of energy and momentum that otherwise play such a rigid and unyielding role at the macro level. That having been said Gestalt aether Theory states that what is amazing as one continues to investigate the sub-atomic world is not that it differs from the macro-world in anything except scale but that it remains the same. This is the true miracle. Quantum mechanics by assigning esoteric attributes to the sub-atomic world such as complementarity, disambiguation and prescience, has done a disservice to science. Another point of dispute between Gestalt aether Theory and quantum mechanics is the use of the term ‘Principle’ for the Heisenberg Uncertainty. GAT feels that a more fitting nomenclature would be the ‘Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation’. This point of view seems justified for as time moves on and technology improves the development of things like femto-second lasers makes it almost possible to trace the orbit of an electron in an atom. The use of the word ‘Principle’ implies a too rigid interpretation leaving no room for such types of technological developments such as these.

A short historical note on the discovery of virtual particles might be in order. In the late 1930’s and early 1940’s it was discovered and later verified by experiment that electrons orbiting the nucleus were constantly emitting and absorbing ‘virtual’ photons. The physicists involved in this research were Hans A Bethe who did his research in the 1930’s. In the early 1940’s this research into the fine structure transitions of the hydrogen atom was continued by Willis E Lamb and R.E. Retherford. They came to the amazing conclusion that the fine structure transitions in the hydrogen atom were the result of the emission and absorption of ‘virtual photons’ by electrons in the Hydrogen atom. Lamb came to the conclusion that this kind of activity took place in all atoms but that these interactions were masked by the presence of multiple electrons and therefore almost impossible to detect. Lamb’s research came under the category of research that was heavily censored for security reasons. Some idea of this heavy censorship can be had from reading the books of Kenneth Ford in particular his book: The World of Elementary Particles. The indisputable fact that electrons were continually emitting and absorbing ‘virtual photons’ became the underlying logic behind the explanation for the mediation of the strong and the weak force. Wikipedia describes such interactions as follows:

The most common approximation method that physicists use for scattering calculations can be interpreted as static forces arising from the interactions between two bodies mediated by virtual particles, particles that exist for only a short time determined by the uncertainty principle. The virtual particles, also known as force carriers, are bosons, with different bosons associated with each force. Wikipedia

To emphasise this point on the emission and absorption of virtual photons by electrons within the atom: These ‘virtual’ photons which are exactly the same as real photons but are emitted and absorbed in such short periods of time ( ≤ 10^−15 sec) that they are able to avoid the laws of conservation. These ‘virtual’ interactions offer the perfect classical physics explanation as to why electrons do not radiate away all their energy and spiral into the nucleus which incidentally was one of the main reasons that wave particle duality was adopted. By constantly emitting and absorbing ‘virtual photons’ the electron is in effect regulating its own energy. Therefore there arises no question of the electron falling into the nucleus. Unfortunately, although ‘virtual particles’ and ‘virtual interactions’ have entered the realm of mainstream physics, wave-particle duality maintains its position as one of the corner-stones of quantum mechanics.

What is interesting in these transactions is the effect of the emission and absorption of virtual photons on the virtual photon aether. (Note the virtual photons of the aether have very low energy but long life times while the virtual photons emitted by electrons orbiting the nucleus have normal energies but very brief life times.). When an electron emits a ‘virtual’ photon, the virtual photons of the aether align for very brief times (<10^−15 sec). When such an aligned line of photons fall on another object it results in the reciprocal emission of a virtual photon and another aligned line of force. It is this brief tensioning or aligning of the virtual photon aether that is responsible for the force of gravity. Thus the electron as it orbits the nucleus, emits a ‘virtual photon’ either as a self-interaction in which case the photon is immediately re-absorbed within a very short order of time on the order of ≤ 10^-15 s. Or as an exchange with the nucleus which is also a very short lived interaction, both types of interaction escape the attention of the Laws of conservation of energy and momentum. The salient point here is that even though a virtual self-interaction by an electron around the nucleus takes place in an incredibly short time it is enough to very briefly bring about an alignment of the normally randomly oriented virtual photons of the aether. These aligned lines of ‘virtual photons’ can be regarded as lines of force. It is this very, very brief alignment of the virtual photon aether that is responsible, according to Gestalt aether Theory for the force of gravity.

To explain this concept in a more easily understandable manner, it is necessary that the Gestalt aether Theory model of the photon be briefly explained. It is held that the electron being a charged particle, that it would be natural for it to mediate or control its energy through the emission and absorption of pulses of energy. This process is how photons of different energies, frequencies and wavelengths are formed. Given below is an illustration of how an electron emits pulses of electrical energy:

photon emission.jpg



It can be seen from the above illustration that the initial pulses of electrical energy emitted by the electron are stronger than subsequent pulses of energy giving rise to polarisation of the pulses of energy. This results in a dipole formation around the pulses of energy as shown below:
photonemission (1).jpg

This is how photons are formed; the end result is an energy stable configuration of the photon. This model of the photon answers to every observed property of the photon. The reason that this photon model is depicted here is to elucidate that all photons both real and virtual possess the same structure. It is because of this dipole type of structure that the photons of the ‘virtual photon’ medium that are normally oriented at random, line up in the direction of the propagation of both the real and the virtual photons emitted by the electron. In the case of a real photon emitted by an electron it results in the transfer of energy along the lines of aligned ‘virtual photons’ resulting in the propagation of light and other electromagnetic phenomena while in the case of the emission of a virtual photon, no exchange of energy takes place, the interaction lasts only long enough to result in a slight tensioning of the ‘virtual photon’ medium, when the virtual photons very briefly align in the projected direction of propagation of the virtual photon. This is the gravitational force and the fact that it originates from a ‘virtual’ interaction explains why it is 10^40 times weaker than the electromagnetic force.

The important point to consider in Gestalt aether Theory is that there are no separate electric fields and no separate magnetic fields, there is only one electromagnetic field that pervades every point in the entire Universe; including empty space and all matter. This is a field in the original sense of the term where every physical point in the Universe possesses a value. In physics, a field is a physical quantity, represented by a number or tensor, which has a value for each point in space and time. In Gestalt aether Theory these values are represented by 'virtual photons' that represent units of electromagnetic charge. Thus even though the charge on the 'virtual photon is so small 10^−40 J that it is to all purposes undetectable having extremely low interaction with matter, it is nevertheless electromagnetic in nature. Thus to clarify the difference between an electric field and a magnetic (electromagnetic) field an electric field is due to the polarisation of the 'virtual photon' field. While an electromagnetic field is energised: the 'virtual photon' field conveys energy. This is the link between electromagnetism and gravity. Gravity is a function of the electromagnetic field.

Observe how well this theory of the tensioning of the aligned lines of virtual photons fits in with Newton’s observations on gravity. It acts in a straight line between two objects. Its strength is dependent on the density of the materials involved. (i.e., denser objects have more virtual photon activity resulting in more aligned lines of force) it appears to emanate from the centre of objects. It follows the inverse square law, its strength diminishing according to the inverse of the square of the distance between the two objects

Imagine a scenario where there is an object in space that is about one half of the earth’s mass, made up of an amalgam of elements some light and some dense. A meteor crashes into this object shattering it and spreading the debris for thousands of miles around. Over a period of some indeterminate amount of time and providing no external influences exist, gravity would start to pull these objects together. The denser elements would exert a greater force and would therefore meld together first, with the lighter elements following on in layers. Further the shape that this accretion would result in would be spherical, since gravity acts equally in all directions. General Relativity cannot explain (at least in any conceivable rational way) how this type of accretion could take place. GAT backs up Newtonian gravity. Gestalt aether Theory utilises Newton's thoughts on gravity as the basis for a new theory of gravity. Because Newton had worked out very accurately how gravity works even if he never found out why it works in the way it does. So any explanation for gravity that follows Newton's reasoning would have to take into account that the force of gravity acts (at least by inference) on the atomic level and therefore acts as Newton states not according to the surface area but according to the density of objects.

The second fact that any theory of gravity would have to take into account is to consider what a weak force gravity is in comparison to the other forces that we know of. It is only 10^-40 the power of the electromagnetic force. The number 10^40 is a massive number almost equalling the number of atoms in the galaxy, for gravity to be so much weaker than the electromagnetic force must offer some hint as to what gravity is?

It turns out (as has previously been suggested in this paper) that modern physics offers only one possible explanation for the force of gravity that fits both of the above criteria. This answer lies in the gauge interactions that electrons within the atom are constantly undergoing. Electrons within the atom are undergoing the constant emission and absorption of 'virtual photons '. Every time an electron around the nucleus emits a 'virtual photon' the virtual photons of the aether line up in its direction of propagation for a very brief infinitesimal period of time <<10^−15s. It is this aligning of the 'virtual photons' of the aether that results in the force of gravity. Thus gravity which is 10^40 times weaker than the electromagnetic force has its origins in virtual interactions, this makes perfect sense because 10^40 represents a colossal number and for the force of gravity to be that much weaker than the electromagnetic force is almost a sure indication that the cause of the force behind gravity must lie in the realm of virtual interactions. It acts over huge cosmological distances because the aether is present throughout the Universe and its power decreases according to the inverse square law. Gravity follows the inverse square law because it is a force of attraction between two bodies, in this it is very similar to coulombs law:

Denser substances possess more elaborate structures and more electrons per atom, thus they create more lines of tension in the aether and exert a proportionally greater force . Since these virtual interactions originate in the very atoms of substances, they penetrate deep into the heart of stars and planets and in fact appear to have their origin in the centre of objects. Thus if you have a sphere, gravity would appear to exert its force from the centre of this sphere.

Thus in modern physics , the strong force and the weak force , as well as the forces governing the relationship between electrons and the nucleus and also it is believed gravity are all mediated by virtual particles. Therefore 'virtual particles' the existence of which many people are reluctant or unwilling to accept, play an essential role in modern day physics. This being so the possibility of an aether that exists on the lines suggested by Gestalt aether Theory provides comprehensive answers to questions such as the propagation and dispersion of light, the force of gravity and so on.

When an electron emits a ‘real’ photon, the result always ends in resolution , for instance the photon might be absorbed by an electron that is receptive to that particular energy , or its energy might be dispersed through the ‘virtual photon aether ’. Similarly electromagnetic radiation in the form of radio-waves always undergoes some kind of resolution, it is either absorbed OR its energy is dispersed in the ‘virtual photon aether’. However the emission of ‘virtual photons ’ by electrons give rise to ‘tensors’ in the ‘virtual photon aether’ causing an alignment of the 'virtual photons' of which it is composed, for an extremely brief time in the direction of propagation, this is always (as explained earlier) an attractive force , there is no resolution instead it will invariably result in a reciprocal release of a virtual photon, so that the attractive force is always positive , (these transactions never result in repulsion ). The emission and absorption of 'virtual' photons by electrons in that atom is a constant never ending process, huge numbers of virtual interactions take place every second. It is the very slight force of alignment of the virtual photons of the aether caused by the emission of a virtual photon by an electron that results in the force of gravity. The act of tensioning of the lines of force results in the shortest distance between two objects. It should be noted that this process of constant emission and absorption of ‘virtual photons’ by electrons within the atom, is an on-going process, it will continue whether other objects are close by or not, or whether the atoms involved are in the middle of dense bodies or at its edges; it is an intrinsic process of the atom. This also accounts for how the force of Gravity increases as two objects near each other and decreases as they move apart. Further as the complexity of the atoms increases as they move up the periodic table of elements, so does the ‘virtual’ photon activity. This accounts for why dense objects experience and exert more gravitational force. This is how gravity works according to Gestalt aether Theory.

In conclusion it must be noted that although Newton was able to explain in a wonderfully detailed manner how gravity worked neither Newton nor Einstein were ever able to explain why gravity worked in the way it did. The Gestalt Aether Theory of gravity explains every aspect of gravity including why it works in the way it does; with a simplicity that reflects the divine.

References:

  • Mathematical Formulation of the of the Quantum Theory of Electromagnetic interaction, Richard Feynman, Dover Publications, New York.
  • The World of elementary particles, Kenneth Ford, Blaisdell, New York
  • The Evolution of Physics, Albert Einstein, Leopold Infield, Simon and Schuster, New York.
  • Gravity, George Gamow, Courier Corporation, New York.
  • Quantum Gravity, Carlo Revelli, Cambridge University Press.
  • Gravitation, Charles W. Misner, Kip S. Thorne, John Archibald Wheeler, Princeton University Press.
 
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You have a lot content but I can help a little. Gravity starts out in space as 331,000 tons of matter and then is at it's maximum as infinite in a black holes gravity well. If you square gravity it makes more sense as (G^2R). I know that should help make more sense than just the work of Newton and Einstein. Gravity is a function of matter in space.
Correction to Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation:
F₁ = F₂ = G² x m₁ x m₂/r²
 

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