A New Theory of Electricity

Aug 31, 2020
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(Note from the author: In order to understand this “New Theory of electricity” it is necessary to first read “The Electromagnetic Universe” that can be found posted in this ‘Science and Astronomy Forum’. This article is of interest because it contains several proofs in favour of the Gestalt Aether Theory and several points where the present quantum mechanics theory of electricity does not agree with observation.)

Electricity

In the short span of a hundred and twenty years or so within which current electricity has been known to man, it has experienced several avatars. As each theory of electricity proved wanting in some aspect, a new theory was put forward. In this book a completely new theory for the propagation of current electricity in a wire is introduced. But first let us examine something of what had gone before.
Today, it is well known that it is the electrons in the outermost orbitals of the atom, which constitute the solid that, determine its electrical properties. The electron theory of solids aims to explain the structures and properties of solids through their electronic structure. The electron theory is applicable to all solids both metals and non-metals. It explains the behaviour of conductors, semi-conductors and insulators, electrical, thermal and magnetic properties of solids and so on. The theory has been developed in three main stages.

(i) The Classical Free Electron Theory: Drude and Lorentz developed this theory in 1900. According to this theory, conducting metals containing free electrons obey the laws of classical mechanics.

(ii) The Quantum Free Electron Theory: Sommerfeld developed this theory in 1928. According to this theory, free electrons obey quantum laws.

(iii) The Zone Theory: Bloch invented this theory in 1928. According to the Zone theory, free electrons move in a periodic field provided by the lattice. This theory is also called the band Theory of solids.

The Classical free electron theory worked well but had its limitations; it failed to account for phenomena such as the photo-electric effect and black body radiation. The classical free electron theory was followed by Sommerfeld’s quantum electron theory which utilised Schrodinger’s equation in order to explain the propagation of an electric current. According to the theory free electrons moved in a wave like fashion through a conductor. While Sommerfeld’s theory explained electrical conductivity in most metals, it failed to explain why a few substance containing free electrons behave as insulators. A solution to this problem is given by band theory. According to this theory, free electrons move inside a periodic lattice field. This concept led to the band theory. The band theory restricts the places in a conductor where free electrons are found that are accessible. The Band theory of electric current assumes that a potential difference exists between the lattice spacing of the conductor. This results in the potential being almost zero near a positive ion in the lattice and maximum when it is halfway between adjacent nuclei.

Modern Theory of Electrical Conduction in a wire:

By observation it is known that when a difference of potential is established across a wire, as for instance by connecting the wire between the terminals of a battery, electrons will begin to move from the negative to the positive pole i.e., against the direction of the difference of potential. What has to be determined is how is electrical energy conveyed through the wire. In any given wire carrying a current, electrons are moving at different speeds. Most of the free electrons in a wire are moving at speed of about 1,900,000 m/s in random directions, even when no difference of potential is present, this is pretty fast. So regardless of whether a current has been established in the wire or not, most of the electrons are moving at speeds of about 1.9 x 10^6 m/s. all moving in random directions. So it is a misconception to think that the moment a difference of potential is applied across the ends of a wire, that the electrons arrange themselves into neat rows and begin moving very, very slowly towards the positive pole. Instead, the chaotic movement of electrons in the wire continues but with a difference of potential established across the ends of the conductor it is found that instead of moving at random the majority of electrons are not only trying to move in random directions but they are also simultaneously being pulled towards the positive pole, the only problem is that their movement is restricted by bumping into other electrons, this brings the overall speed of the electrons down from 1.9 x 10^6 m/s to something like 2 x 10^-5 m/s which is incredibly slow and works out to something like a hundredth of a millimetre per second. Now, this is important, the speed of electrons moving in the direction of the positive pole of the conductor is called the drift velocity. What is interesting is that the mean free path that an electron can follow towards the positive pole corresponds to its drift velocity. The mean free path of an electron can be defined as the average distance travelled by the electron between successive impacts (collisions), which modify its direction or energy or other particle properties. It is interesting to note that the mean free path of the electron corresponds to the drift velocity of the electron.

One objection that is often raised when discussing the propagation of electric current through a wire is that if the drift velocity of electrons in a wire carrying a current is so slow, how is it possible that an electric current is established in the wire at speeds close to that of the speed of light? The speed of light is 2.9972 x 10^8 m/s. If the electrons are moving through the wire at the rate of 0.02mm/s how can the current be established in the wire at something near the speed of light? In order to answer this question it is necessary to look at the density of atoms in a conductor. If there are on average of 10^24 atoms in one cubic centimetre of a conductor, it means that if the density of electrons across a cross section of the wire is taken at any point in the wire it will be the same as at any other point in the wire. Therefore even though the drift velocity of electrons in a wire might be slow, it is uniformly distributed throughout the wire, so that the end effect is that more than enough electrons are available at the end point, say the filament of a light bulb, to provide enough energy to power the bulb. This is (approximately) known as the domino theory, push an electron in at one end of the conductor and an electron pops out at the other end of the conductor. So far so good, and it looks as if the age old wisdom that it is electrons that are the charge carriers of an electric current really holds good.

But hold on a second, can this really be true? Think about this for a minute. It is well known that an atom is 99.99999 % empty space, this being true is it possible to think in terms of electrons bumping into each other? Strong electrostatic forces prevail at the atomic level, this is the reason that although an atom might consist of 99.99999 % empty space, it is not possible to walk through walls or fall through the floor. It is estimated that electrons within an electrical conductor are separated by huge distances. For one electron travelling through an electric conductor, to hit another electron would be like trying to hit one billiard ball with another billiard ball at a distance of 250,000 km. If such strong electrostatic forces of repulsion exist between electrons; is it possible that electrons bumping into each other is what controls the mean free path that an electron can travel in a conductor? No, it seems as if electrostatic forces do not have a large role to play in the calculation of the mean free path. While atoms in a gas may be constantly bumping into each other, it should be remembered that by and large atoms are neutral and are therefore not subject to electrostatic forces. In electrons on the other hand electrostatic forces play a large role. Therefore since the presence of electrostatic forces of repulsion, precludes the possibility of electrons bumping into each other and slowing down. The reason for the length of the mean free path must lie elsewhere. This is one claim of quantum electronics; namely that electrons in a conductor are slowed down by bumping into each other, that is false. Given that, that is the case, what governs the length of the mean free path? One answer could be that free electrons in a conductor interact with ions in the crystal lattice of the conductor. Thus the temporary capture of a free electron by an ion might better explain the mean free path than existing solutions. There are other major areas where the present theory does not correspond to observations. Therefore, the present theory of how electricity is conveyed in a wire is inadequate.

The modern theory of how an electric current propagates through a wire is given below:

The mechanism of energy transport through a medium involves the absorption and re-emission of the wave energy by the atoms of the material. When an electromagnetic wave impinges upon the atoms of a material, the energy of that wave is absorbed. The absorption of energy causes the electrons within the atoms to undergo vibrations. After a short period of vibrational motion, the vibrating electrons create a new electromagnetic wave with the same frequency as the first electromagnetic wave. While these vibrations occur for only a very short time, they delay the motion of the wave through the medium. Once the energy of the electromagnetic wave is re-emitted by an atom, it travels through a small region of space between atoms. Once it reaches the next atom, the electromagnetic wave is absorbed, transformed into electron vibrations and then re-emitted as an electromagnetic wave. While the electromagnetic wave will travel at a speed of c (3×108m/s ) through the vacuum of inter-atomic space, the absorption and re-emission process causes the net speed of the electromagnetic wave to be less than c. : The Physics Classroom Web Site : www.physicsclassroom.com/mmedia/waves/em.cfm

The following extract is more or less an aside on the present topic but it does illustrate why a theory such as Gestalt Aether Theory is needed. Look at the following passage that relates to how light propagates:

The wave function of the spacetime and the matter fields, all together, can then be seen as a super-field that propagates in the minisuperspace and the so-called third quantisation procedure can be applied in a parallel way as the second quantisation procedure is performed with a matter field that propagates in the spacetime. The super-field can thus be interpreted as made up of universes propagating, i.e. evolving, in the minisuperspace. Robles-Perez S. Quantum Cosmology in the Light of Quantum Mechanics

I hope the above excerpt shows that my fears that present day mainstream physics has to be reviewed is taken in the right context.

Max Planck’s findings not applied in explanations of current propagation:

Although the present day explanation for the propagation of an electric current might on the surface seem sound, it is not wholly convincing. Max Planck had convincingly demonstrated the particle nature of light wherein each particle of light has a distinctive energy. The energy of a wave is by its very nature dispersive, it is not possible to talk of individual energy levels. Further in every instance (outside an electrical conductor), the photon has been observed to be the mediator of energy for the electron. The electron mediates its energy levels through the absorption and emission of photons. For instance Max Planck in his experiments on Black Body radiation (Heat & light) found that all of the heat and light in a black body was mediated by photons. How then can an exception be made in the case of an electrical current where energy (heat and electrical energy) is transported? Thus the present day mainstream physics theory of how an electrical current propagates through a wire does not conform with the observed findings and confirmed results of Max Planck’s discovery that all energy comes in the form of tiny discrete packets of energy called quanta. What does this mean? In order to realise the significance of this statement it is necessary to apply Max Planck’s findings to the present theory of electrical conduction. In present theory of electrical conduction, it is presumed that when a difference of potential is set up across the ends of a conductor that a current begins to flow. The current flows when individual electrons get excited and start to vibrate and oscillate, as the electrons in the conductor begin to oscillate they generate an electromagnetic wave that is passed on to the next electron in line and this , in simple terms, is how the propagation of an electrical current is described in terms of present day mainstream physics. Here, it is important to note the quantum mechanics definition of an electromagnetic wave. According to quantum mechanics, the electron as a wave has diffused energy, it is not localised. This is the reason, claims quantum mechanics, that an electron in an atom, although in an accelerated state, does not radiate away all of its energy and fall into the nucleus in a few pico seconds. It is also the reason why one cannot talk in terms of an electron's orbit around the nucleus. A wave being diffuse cannot radiate energy.

The fact that electromagnetic waves are diffuse and non-localised raises questions; what is the exact frequency and wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation that electrons in the conductor generate? Surely the frequency wavelength and energy of the generated electromagnetic wave that supposedly carries the electric current would vary widely with each circumstance that the electron encounters in the confines of the conductor? For instance, changes in temperature, obstructions or occlusions in the metal of the conductor or even the distance to other electrons might all qualitatively change the kind of electromagnetic wave being generated. Further, what is to stop the electromagnetic wave that is generated by the electron from travelling further than the next electron, which in terms of a wave is an infinitesimal distance away, why can’t it travel several feet or yards, giving part of its energy to electrons along the way. Finally, since it is a wave, how does this electromagnetic wave deliver the correct energy component; since as can be seen the energy of the electromagnetic wave can vary widely according to circumstance. In short this theory of electricity being conveyed by an electromagnetic wave generated by electrons and being carried from electron to electron is full of inconsistencies. It is an inaccurate model; it completely ignores the findings of Max Planck, who after all had to account for all kinds of frequencies and wavelength in his theory of Black body radiation and subsequent discovery of the Planck constant. In sum the present mainstream or quantum mechanics explanation for the propagation of an electric current in a wire falls far short of acceptable standards in physics.

Gestalt Aether Theory of how an electric current propagates in a wire

Quantum mechanics often prides itself on its out of the box thinking, yet an examination of its fundamental precepts demonstrates that far from being innovative much of quantum mechanics is definitely tradition bound and tied down by doctrine. Take as a prime example the propagation of electricity in a wire. According to Max Planck, all changes in an electron’s energy had to be mediated by photons. The sometimes wave and sometimes particle approach of quantum mechanics yields faulty results and also contributes to a certain sloppiness in physics. Since, wave-particle duality means that circumstances can be altered to suit the results. In sum quantum mechanics theory as applied to the propagation of an electrical current in a wire does not yield the rigorous result, needed in such an important branch of physics.

The question here is; why use the concept of an electromagnetic wave to convey electrical energy from one electron to the next at all? Why not use the emission and absorption of photons? The answer to this is ironical; classical physics shows that a free electron moving in a conductor would not be able to cope with the forces of recoil that the emission or absorption of a photon would give rise to. Therefore emission or absorption of a photon by a free electron within a conductor, according to quantum mechanics, is forbidden. Without the benefit of the massive nucleus with which to absorb recoil, a free electron cannot cope with the forces of recoil that emission or absorption of a photon would entail. This is the explanation as to why quantum mechanics opted for the use of an electromagnetic wave rather than photons to convey an electrical current. The theory that an electric current within a wire was propagated through an electromagnetic wave also fit in well with one of the corner-stones of quantum mechanics, namely wave-particle duality.

Yet, there does exist one solution whereby it would be possible for free electrons in a conductor to emit and absorb photons. This is the solution adopted by Gestalt Aether Theory. The explanation is that free electrons are able to emit and absorb photons due to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle as applied to time and energy:

ΔEΔT≥h

One consequence of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle is that we can take seriously the possibility of the existence of energy non-conserving processes—provided the amount by which energy is not conserved, Eviolation , exists for a time less than t=h/4πEviolation. Thus it is possible for a free electron to emit a photon provided that it (almost) immediately reabsorbs that photon in an extremely short time on the order of 10^−15 s. Gestalt Aether Theory states that this is how electromagnetic fields are formed, a free electron within the conductor emits a photon, but in order to avoid violation of the laws of energy conservation, the photon has to be reabsorbed by the same, or identical, electron within the stipulated time of 10^−15 s. In the same way photons that are emitted need to be reabsorbed by an electron needing the correct energy level, the nearest source of such electrons are within the conductor, this process also explains the process of induction. Conditions in a wire at room temperature are chaotic, often the electron that originally emitted the conduction photon has already absorbed another conduction photon (since all conduction photons are identical as to properties) before the emitted conduction photon can be reabsorbed! If this happens the original conduction photon leaves the conductor and circles back to be absorbed by another electron. When a conduction photon leaves the conductor, the virtual photons of the aether that permeate the Universe line up in the direction of propagation of the (real) conduction photon, which loops back to re-enter the conductor. This is why the lines of force form around a conductor. When a photon is emitted by a free electron within a conductor it has to be immediately reabsorbed, often the shortest route for the photon to achieve re-absorption by an electron is to exit the conductor and circle or loop back into the conductor, when this happens the photons of the 'virtual photon' aether which are present throughout the Universe, line up in the direction of propagation of the real conduction photon resulting in the distinctive lines of force that are seen around a conductor. This model perfectly explains the right hand rule of current in a wire and the presence of lines of force around a conductor which quantum mechanics and standard theory are unable to do.

Looked at on a time line it would be as follows: At t1, free electron e1 emits a conduction photon. In which case, by momentum conservation, e1 will experience recoil in the opposite direction of the emitted conduction photon. (c) At some time t2, less than h/4πEviolation ( and before the recoil can take place), the electron e1 re-absorbs the conduction photon in such a way that the total energy of the electron e1 is equal to what it was before the intermediate virtual state. In the second scenario at t1 electron e1 emits a conduction photon. In which case, by momentum conservation, e1 will experience recoil in the opposite direction of the emitted conduction photon. At some time t2, less than h/4πEviolation( and before the recoil can take place), the photon exits and re-enters the conductor and is absorbed by electron e2 which has also emitted a photon, while electron e1 absorbs a photon emitted by another free electron within the same time period. These transactions take place in such a manner that the total energy of the electron e1 and electron e2 is equal to what it was before the intermediate virtual state. Still looking at the time line and applying it to real situations e.g., current in a wire it is found that the time stipulation of 10^−15s is well within the limits as determined by flow of current in a conductor.

Thus the claim advanced herein that the existing explanation of how a current flows in a conductor is unsatisfactory and a suitable new explanation for how current propagates in a wire including an explanation for the formation of lines of force is proposed.
The model for the propagation of an electric current proposed by Gestalt Aether Theory within a wire fits observed phenomena very accurately and precisely, there is no room for error. The theory establishes on a very sound basis that the electromagnetic force both inside and outside the wire is transmitted by photons. However both standard theory and quantum mechanics postulate that from the time at which the electromagnetic wave (this wave by inference applies to all kinds of electromagnetic radiation) originates to the time of detection, that the photons comprising the electromagnetic radiation exist as an abstract mathematical wave function in multiple dimensions. Isn't this a bit too abstract? Think about it; a simple tangible physical manifestation is made into such a hugely complicated and convoluted process. Is such a theory justified or even epistemologically correct from the point of view of the study of physics? Most definitely it is not. Leaving this somewhat obvious observation aside for the moment and returning to another proof offered by GAT in favour of its theory of electrical propagation. It is as follows: Consider a wire through which an AC current is flowing, close to the conductor the quality of the electromagnetic radiation is different from that further out. Thus it is possible to hold a coil close to a wire carrying an alternating electrical current and draw off a considerable current through means of induction taking place in the coil. Yet further out, say even at a distance of 50 cm from the conductor there is a qualitative difference and it will be impossible to detect even a small induced current in the coil. Note that this fact is a significant proof in support of the Gestalt Aether Theory of electrical conduction. According to the wave function of quantum mechanics the value of the energy at a distance of 50 cm from the conductor should vary according to the inverse square law, this is demonstrably proved to be false, Gestalt Aether Theory gives an explanation for why this is so. Quantum mechanics cannot and does not provide an explanation for why the measurement of the field of a conductor at a distance of 50 cm does not correspond to the inverse square law. The intensity of the field at 50 cm from the conductor should correspond with the inverse square law. The fact that it doesn't do so shows that the GAT theory is correct and that the wave function theory of quantum mechanics is more or less based on highly questionable logic and even more questionable mathematics rather than on any reality.

Gestalt Aether Theory states that electricity is carried neither by electrons nor by an electromagnetic wave but by 'conduction photons' that are emitted by free electrons within the conductor. These ‘conduction photons’ (the designation is introduced here for the first time) are the longest wave-length photon that an electron can emit. It possesses a wave length of 1.2 x 10^-6 m and a frequency of 2.489 THz and an energy of 1.6 x 10^ 19J. The free electrons in a conductor are only allowed to emit 'conduction photons' if by the conditions of Heisenberg's Uncertainty principle ΔTΔE≥h they reabsorb a photon of similar magnitude within a given time period. In the case of a current being established in a wire it signifies a time of about 10^−15 s, for the electron in question to reabsorb a photon of the same energy as was emitted. This means that the emitted 'conduction photons' often have to exit the conductor and re-enter it in order to be absorbed by an electron. The emitted 'conduction photons' also having a need to be absorbed by a receptive electron. The exit and re-entry of the 'conduction photons' in the conductor results in the lining up of the 'virtual photons' of the aether around the conductor which in turn are manifested as the lines of force we are all familiar with. The lines of force established outside a conductor carrying an electrical current can be oriented in two ways. At a distance from the conductor in what is termed the far field, ‘virtual photons’ align themselves in a parallel formation. Close to the conductor in what is termed the near field ‘virtual photons’ align themselves in a series formation:

photonsinseries.jpg



The fact that the lines of force around a conductor carrying an electric current are lines of aligned virtual photons forms an important part of Gestalt Aether Theory. Present day mainstream physics, as in quantum mechanics and standard theory do not offer a compelling explanation for what the lines of force are, how they are formed or what role they play in the conduction of an electric current although it is understood that a large part of the energy in an electrical current is stored in the lines of force surrounding an electrical conductor. In the near field around the conductor the lines of force are connected in series and each line of force contains the energy of one ‘conduction photon’ (i.e., 1.6 x 10^-19 J or 1 eV). This fits in with well with observed data and conforms with the flow of an electric current. Suppose that the application of 1 V of potential difference to a wire 1mm in diameter results in the emission of 10^19 ‘conduction photons’ . It is possible to see that 10^19 lines of force each carrying an energy of 1.6 x 10^-19 V will result in a current flow of 1amp (approx) = 1 W and so on. So the value of one ‘conduction photon’/line of force multiplied by the number of conduction photons and lines of force = 1.6 x 10^-19 x 10^19 = 1C. Note that here the drift velocity of the electrons does not matter the ‘conduction’ photons each deliver 1.6 x 10^-19 J . = 1C x 1V = 1 watt.

Conclusion

It has been demonstrated that the present day quantum mechanics theory for the propagation of an electrical current is not accurate and will have to be replaced. The explanation that it is electrons that are the carriers of an electric current is false as is the explanation that an electric current is carried by free electrons within a conductor producing electromagnetic waves that convey the electrical current from electron to electron. This is a demonstrably false and unfounded theory. Even more important is the fact the while it is well known that much of the energy in a wire carrying an electric current resides in the lines of force that surround the conductor, quantum mechanics has no explanation as to why or how this is so.
Gestalt Aether theory on the other hand has a very sound explanation both for how and why a large portion of the energy of an electric current resides in the lines of force surrounding a current. In the same way, while quantum mechanics cannot explain why the intensity of the far field does not correspond to the inverse square law, Gestalt Aether Theory offers a perfect explanation. The Gestalt Aether Theory explanation of an electric current is made at the atomic level while the quantum mechanics explanation is more generalised and contains more errors and false explanations.
References
  • The theory of electromagnetic wave propagation, Charles Herach Papas, Dover Press.
  • Electricity, Chris Woodford, Rosen Central New York
  • Electric and Magnetic Fields, Charles Oatley, Cambridge University Press
  • Electrical conduction mechanisms in solids, Claus Hamann, Hubert Burghardt, Thomas Frauenheim, Springer Press
  • Near Field and Far Field Excitation of a long conductor in a lossy medium, David A Hill, National Institute for Standards and Technology.
 
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